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To enhance high economic growth, the govt has initiated radical fiscal measures. A new and encouraging tax revision has been proposed by the Union Finance Minister. The income tax payers are offered financial relief with the proposed tax deduction.

Have a look at the following table-. This in turn increases the tax burden on the investors. That means the company will not be held responsible to pay DDT and the recipients will be taxed for the dividend. Skip to content. Advancement for Transport Infrastructure Huge employment opportunity is offered by the National Infrastructure Pipeline. Barrett discussed vegetable-processing waste minimization and treatment practices in Great Britain.

The reuse of effluents after activated carbon or reverse osmosis treatment and chlorination or ozonation were advo- cated for certain applications. Wright described tests of an improved leafy greens washing system using water recirculation to characterize the quality of the washwater and wastes and to make comparisons with conven- tional washers. The test system produced a cleaner product while reducing waste requirements and consolidating waste loads.

Hoehn et al. These workers concluded that recirculation of washwater in immersion-type, leafy-green washing systems is a promising modification of existing processing methods for reducing water consumption and concentrating waste loads so that they can be more easily treated. Wilson and Huang examined washwater recycle flow schemes from a tomato processing plant. When compared with the conventional scheme without recycle, a 26 percent increase in tonnage of tomatoes processed was obtained with disc cleaning with recycle plus chemical coagulation.

Water consumption also decreased by 41 percent. An in-plant water recycle system with off-line mud removal was demon- strated for the tomato processing industry Use of the disc cleaner and water recycle system increased the daily average tonnage of tomatoes pro- cessed because solids did not accumulate in the dump tank and impair product flow.

A waste-eliminating beet peeling system coupled with controlled chemical treatment installed at a Wisconsin Cannery reduced the BOD by percent ppm to ppm after lagooning and caused a 50 percent drop in the hydraulic load Measures were being initiated to minimize pro- duction of waste and to conserve water by recycling. Alternatives in formulating a wastewater management program are exempli- fied in the development of a phased program by a carrot processor 1. Reductions of all parameters were noted at each step of the process, and water was suitable for reuse and discharge.

The operation demonstrates the effectiveness and economy of a phased approach for developing a waste management program. Treatment consisted of screening, settling, coagulation, settling, and filtration. A large California carrot processor successfully recycles nearly all wash and flume water Holdsworth summarized the nature and composition of effluents from fruit and vegetable processing industries in the United Kingdom.

A survey showed that water usage was in excess of million gallons annually for vegetable canners alone, corresponding to a production of over thousand tons of vegetables. General operations were similiar for every process, although each product has its own special equipment. Methods which utilize water reuse and recirculation have increased, especially the use of counter- current methods for washing and cooling.

A typical water recirculation sys- tem used for pea freezing was illustrated. Eckenfelder presented a comparison of the cost of in-plant versus end-of-pipe treatment of various fruit and vegetable processing wastewaters. In plant modifications were economically justified in nearly all cases. The unusual problems associated with wastewater minimization and treat- ment at an artichoke processing plant were discussed by Perkins In-plant wastewaters conservation reduced water usage from , gpd in to 40, gpd cu.

Thompson and Esvelt examined the potential for reclamation and reuse of fruit processing wastewater and found it technically feasible to reduce wastewater discharge and water demand by over 50 percent. The con- sistency of renovated water quality along with physical, chemical, and bacteriological quality were considered critical in determing where water could be reused.

Activated sludge treatment of citrus wastes followed by lime treatment and in-plant reuse were discussed by Jones He concluded that the treated effluent could be recycled, the waste sludge could be used as cattle feed, and high excess solids production could result from the process. A full-scale, complete-mixed activated sludge treatment system treats wastewater from the Winter Garden Citrus Products Cooperative The treatment plant effluent is reused for barometric leg and cooling water before being discharged.

Reuse of the treated water has resulted in an approximately 25 percent savings in annual operating costs of the treatment system. Stone reported on the commercial application of dry caustic peeling of peaches. He demonstrated that a reduction in freshwater require- ment of nearly 90 percent was feasible. Lower operating costs and reduction of damage to fruit during peeling were also claimed.

Various water- savings devices were mentioned and the concurrent saving of heat was emphasized. A review of the literature pertinent to the production and treatment of potato processing wastes was presented by Stephenson and Guo The report outlined unit operations employed in the industry with emphasis placed on the french fry and potato chip section. Data on the quantity and quality of wastes generated from each unit operation were collected and analyzed.

In-plant measures for water conservation, water recycle and by-products recovery were demonstrated as potential methods for reduction of waste loads. Water use and wastewater reuse studies were conducted at three potato processing plants whose major product was frozen french fried items Wastewater characteristics of specific process lines were presented for each plant. A scheme for more complete reuse of the wastewater in processing was proposed based on the in-plant investigations.

Lash et al. The eco- nomics and processes which make possible the recycle of treated potato processing liquid wastes were shown. Basically, the process involved screening course solids, primary clarification of fine solids, and filtration of underflow solids to produce cattle feed. The primary effluent was treated by the activated sludge process. Tertiary treatment by granular medi- filtration removed the final solids.

After chlorination, a major amount of the treated water was recycled to the processing plant for many uses. Expen- sive local water costs and high sewer costs add incentives to use of recycle. Hautala and Weaver reported on methods of reducing pollution from the cutting phase of potato processing. After a two-stage filtration step, the cutting water could be recycled and the solids recovered from the wash- water.

Gransfield and Gallop discussed the conservation, reclamation, and reuse of solids and water in potato processing. Plowright described biological treatment systems for potato wastes and techniques for using re- covered water for prewashing and peeling after filtration and chlorination. A study of water conservation and reuse in potato processing plants indicated An additional This applies to a specific plant. Because of wide variations in plant methods, individual plants should be surveyed before recommending water reuse.

Disinfection with chlorine dioxide permitted a Pacific Northwest potato processor to reuse some process water up to three times in successively less critical processes Water usage was reduced 30 percent. Activated carbon was evaluated as a means of controlling enzymatic browning. Colston and Smallwood reported on waste control methods used in a sweet potato processing plant, including dry caustic peeling and pre- treatment methods.

Allen described the water reclamation system at an instant mashed potato plant in Yorkshire, England. The design, construction, operation and economics of the system were reviewed. Shaw and Shuey described a new method of potato starch production that would reduce wastes by 90 percent.

The use of anion exchange resins for removal of acids from potato starch factory wastewater after prior removal of proteins and amino acids was studied by Schwartz et al. The process removed over 99 percent of the acids. Data were given on the effect of effluent temperature and flow rate on column efficiency during the acid adsorption step.

Increasing the alka- linity of the eluating agent or recycling the eluate were listed as methods of increasing the concentration of acids in the eluate. Possible uses of the eluate were also discussed. Secondary wastes from potato-starch processing can be treated by reverse osmosis This material contains protein, free amino acids, organic acids, sugars, inorganic acids, and other compounds.

In a pilot test, the recovered water was pure enough for reuse. The best choice of the three types of membranes tested was the one of medium porosity. This conclusion was based upon the relationship between flux, retention of desirable waste- water constituents, and reduction of COD. Besik discussed the potential and reported uses of the reverse osmosis process as they apply to the starch industry, to other industries and to water reclamation.

Problems encountered were addressed. Besik feels that reverse osmosis is suited particularly for treating wastes from starch manufacturing plants, because both the permeate and concentrate can be reused and recycled. The practice of recycling wastewater has become increasingly successful in the beet sugar industry It has been demonstrated that a factory which recycles water does not need to discharge any wastewater during the processing season. A comprehensive discussion of the practice is presented.

The practice of recirculation reduces the overall water volume, reduces the amount of water subjected to pollution thus reducing the size and cost of facilities needed to maneuver and treat the water. Most beet sugar factories recycle at least some of their process water.

The beet sugar industry uses water for transportation, as well as pro- cessing, and produces very highly contaminated wastewaters. Miles described optimum uses and reuse at the Hereford, Texas plant of the Holly Sugar Corporation. A clarification, recirculation, and impounding system was installed.

Description sketches were given to illustrate the reuse processes and facilities. Brenton and Fischer reported on a two-year study conducted within the industry on the containment, treatment, recirculation, and reuse of sugar beet fluming and washwater. The particu- lar system studied included two alternately used first ponds in series with a second pond.

At the end of the processing season, the system and surface waters were discharged into an aerated pond for treatment. Water was not discharged from the final pond but used as fluming and washwater during the next processing season. Crane described advances toward reuse of water in the beet sugar industry. Process technology was explained as a means of understanding the effective reuse of wastewater. Flow diagrams showing systems without reuse and with complete reuse were presented.

Smith gave a description of inplant reuse that reduced water re- quirements by greater than 97 percent in the processing of beet sugar. Bickle discussed procedures used in the treatment of sugar-mill wastewater effluents before discharge into a creek in Queensland, Australia. Recycle was used in combination with aeration. Fischer undertook a study to develop a closed-loop wastewater treatment system for flume water used for conveying and washing in a sugar beet factory.

Recirculation of flume waters was shown to be possible. An aerobic pond effectively treated the total flume water after each operating cycle. Although the treated produce water also met discharge standards, it was reused in the system. The California and Hawaiian Sugar Company installed a 1.

Water not reused in the refinery is diluted with San Francisco Bay waters before discharge. Paxson reported on the construction of a sugar beet factory in North Dakota which would have a slicing capacity of 5, tons of sugar beets per day and a yearly production of 75, pounds of sugar. Braunschweigische Maschinenbauanstalt BMA of Germany was responsible for its design and construction. All the water at the facility would be recycled.

A sucessful project by Manitoba Sugar Company, Fort Garry, Manitoba, to reduce river pollution by eliminating sugar beet processing wastes was described by Blankenbach and Willison A recirculation system was put into operation in The system consists of screening, clarification, coagulation, and sedimentation.

Clarifier overflow is recirculated to the flume water supply tank. It is felt that the increased concentration of dissolved solids in the recirculation system produces significant savings of sugar by reducing osmotic pressure differentials. A two- step membrane process has been demonstrated for the treatment of soy whey In both laboratory and field pilot studies, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis were used to produce protein and sugar concentrates as by- products, and a low BOD effluent.

The soy whey is first introduced into a low pressure UF unit. The permeate from the UF unit is introduced into a RO operation. The final effluent from the RO section can either be reused within the plant or discharged. A series of hour tests were made in a commercial soybean oil refinery under eight different operating conditions to select optimum conditions for a subsequent longer test of the antipollution recycle-washing process in which wash water would be recycled instead of being discarded Operating and analytical data, equipment specifications and cost data were acquired.

The new recycle process will provide an economic -solution to the wash water dis- posal problem. Research by Lewis showed the feasibility of recycling process waters in the beer brewing industry. Data were presented indicating recy- cling did not affect the quality and flavor of the beer. McKee and Pincince reviewed water quality requirements and washwater characteristics of a typical brewery.

Techniques for water conservation and advanced treatment methods for partial or complete recycle were included. Preparation of olives for canning creates a strong liquid waste which is high in both BOD and sodium chloride content , In this study, storage brines and processing waters from the production of canned and glass- packed olives were treated with activated carbon.

The reuse potential of reconditional brines were evaluated. Canned samples prepared from olives stored in reconditioned brines were of good quality. Reconditioned concen- trated brines can be used to store freshly harvested olives for at least six months. Reconditioned brines of lower salt content were reused with no detectable effect on quality of the final product. Cost estimates for the activated carbon treatment system were given.

Treated lye rinse waters were reused in commercial production with no detectable effect on the quality of the canned olives as judged by production personnel. There is considerable promise of using carbon treatment of processing waters to condition these liquid wastes for reuse at considerable savings in potable water and reduc- tion of salt pollution potential.

It was concluded from this study that the reconditioning and reuse of olive storage brines is a commercially feasible process. Brines used for bleaching, curing, and preserving sweet cherries were made reusable by treatment with activated carbon. Reuse required the removal of dissolved pigment in the used brine Cherries packed in the reclaimed brine were of higher quality than those used in the control.

It appeared that the brine could be reclaimed and reused several times. Savings would result not only from lower requirements of chemicals for making brine, but also from reduced sewage charges when discharging into a municipal sewage system. Preliminary experiments using activated carbon treatment, sand filtration, and addition of SCL and lime have produced a product simi- lar in composition, color, and firmness to that of fresh brines.

Little et al. Water usage and waste characteristics were determined on major unit operations. Laboratory and pilot-scale studies were performed to evaluate potential for recycling concentrated tankyard brines. Both a high pH coagulation-precipitation procedure and an ultrafiltration procedure were investigated. A "desk-top" evaluation of various brine treatment processes compared their cost effectiveness.

The study indicated that in-plant water and salt usage could be substantially reduced by closer management and better housekeeping; that tankyard brines could be treated and reused at least once with no sacrifice of product quality; and that existing wastewater treatment facilities aerated lagoons could be upgraded to improve BOD and solids re- moval.

Results of the study provided a detailed characterization of the types and concentration of components of waste streams from unit operations in cucumber pickle production. Laboratory and in-plant studies have led to the development of a method for treating spent cucumber brine for recycling The recommended system includes adjusting the pH of the brine to The precipitate can be incinerated to recover the salt and reduce waste disposal problems. This method results in an actual savings in the cost of treating brine due to the recovered salt.

This does not include any savings on sewage costs and surcharges. Brine wastes in the cucumber pickle industry were studied by Horney Regeneration of these wastes for subsequent reuse was considered the most feasible method of treating these wastes. Two methods of regeneration were studied in detail: 1 chemical coagulation-precipitation with lime and sodium hydroxide to pH Two brine treatment procedures, heat treatment and chemical treatment, were commercially evaluated for their feasibility in recycling spent cucum- ber fermentation brine Results showed that brine recycling was practical on a commercial scale.

Either treatment procedure resulted in salt stocks which were equivalent in quality to control cucumbers. The lye or alkaline solution employed in the initial working of fresh olives becomes contaminated with organic impurities. Because the BOD of this waste is extremely high, it cannot be released into municipal sewage systems without first being diluted with large quantities of water.

An invention by Teranishi and Stern provides a means for obviating the problem. Con- taminants in the lye solution are removed so that the purified liquor can be recycled. Only the settled contaminants must be disposed of; and since the volume of waste is small, disposal is not difficult. Smith 24 discussed the reuse of wastewater in the poultry processing industry. Some basic theories on wastewater reuse were presented: 1.

First flow through those processes requiring highest-quality relating to priority of microbiological content or suspended or dissolved solids. The next step is to try to find other processes that can use this effluent with or without further treatment. Note that U. Department of Agriculture closely regulates the types of water reuse, and the methods of water use in edible food operations. If a cooling process is involved, try to use the effluent where warm water is needed.

If a heating process is involved such as a thawing operation, try to use the effluent where cool water is needed. Large quan- tities of water are used in poultry processing plants. On the average, gallons of'water are used to process a two to three pound broiler. Recycling holds the greatest potential for eliminating some of the large amounts of water used. A demonstration project to demonstrate the feasibility of recycling water in the chiller portion of the poultry processing plant was discussed.

Some specific results of such a system should be: 1. Savings in water consumption. A decrease in the amount of waste effluent from the chiller. Savings in refrigeration. Technology that can be used at additional locations in the poultry processing plant and other food industries.

Reuse of wastewater in the food processing industry is often constrained by the requirement to meet potable water standards A system using microstraining, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration achieved this goal in the poultry-processing industry.

Studies were conducted on recycling chiller water in a poultry proces- sing plant The recycling system must be provided with the capability of removing solids and controlling the microbial population. Ultraviolet light was used to control the microbial population. Pilot-scale results showed that filtration with diatomaceous earth was the most feasible treat- ment option studied for removal of solids.

Filtration also maintained the bacterial level below that of the nonrecycled system. Operating costs for the filtrations system were approximately 45 percent lower than normal operating costs of the chiller without recycle.

Areas of water use reduction were defined. Waste reduction measures resulted in an approximate 25 percent reduction in water use. Crosswhite presented a case history of the project. Results were described of water use and waste load reduction measures and the economic analysis of such reductions. All of the process and equipment changes developed in the project increased net revenue and would be economically feasible. Love described the design and operation of a poultry processing waste treatment system including water reuse.

The system included screening, aeration, clarification, lime and alum treatment, further clari- fication, filtration, chlorination, and sludge transfer to a lagoon. Berry et al. It was concluded that clarification, followed by dissolved air flotation, could be used for preparing chiller wastewater for filtration followed by activated carbon absorption to produce water suitable for implant recycle. McGrail examined health and safety aspects of the reuse of poultry processing wastewater.

Lillard studied water recycling in poultry- processing plants and disinfection. Andelman and Clise studied the internal recycle of poultry-processing wastewater in a phased demonstration program. Results suggested that renovated water quality compared favorably with that of the raw well water source. Hamza et al. A multiple water use system instituted in the plant included recycling the second chiller water to the first chiller; reusing washing water as makeup in the scalding operation; and continuously feeding uncontaminated compressor cooling waters to the scalding tanks.

They also noted that modifications of the evisceration process and renovating and recycling of condenser water would also reduce water usage. Performance and feasibility of various alternatives for pollutant reduc- tion available to the poultry processing industry were discussed by Woodard Typical poultry processing operations, wastewater sources, and flow and pollutant loading were described. Three alternatives for reducing the discharge of pollutants were presented.

The first includes chemical coagula- tion and dissolved air flotation of combined flows followed by sand filtration and activated carbon. The second involves effluent flow reduction through process changes to replace water-using steps with dry processes. Results of technical feasibility studies and cost analyses for the alternatives were presented.

A typical broiler processing plant was used to evaluate changes in equipment and processing techniques to reduce water use and waste load Production at the plant was through two processing lines and totaled approx- imately 70, broilers per day. Results indicated that water use per bird received was reduced by 32 percent. Changes made were detailed. Economic analysis showed all to be profitable for the plant.

A water and waste management plan was detailed. Microbiological analyses indicated no deter- ioration in product quality as a result of the changes. Poultry processing plant chiller effluent is normally discharged to the sewer with no reuse of water By recycling the chiller water, a pro- cessing plant could make substantial savings per year in water and refrigeration costs.

Norbest Turkey Growers Association utilized the "Dri-Flo System," a waste-handling system using stainless steel belts, to correct wastewater effluent in their Utah primary processing plants The system saved gpm of water. Overflow water from washing basins was recycled by fil- tering through diatomaceous earth and chlorination.

Plant production was doubled without doubling water usage. The system employs a series of pro- cessing units for hydrolyzing solid wastes that are dried into animal meal. Economic evaluation of the system indicated an operating profit. Witherow et al. The concept of integrated water manage- ment through in-plant control, solids recovery and disposal, wastewater treatment, and water reuse was presented. Fullen and Hill pointed out that reduction of waste volumes by reuse of clean cooling and condensing waters, without passing them through the treatment plant, would result in a substantial decrease in the cost of treatment facilities in the meat packing industry.

Corban explores new methods for the treatment of wastewaters and the reuse of water in the meat industry in New Zealand. Incentive for the investigation of the wastewater situation in the Shortland Works, Auckland, New Zealand, was increased by the cost of waste treatment and water.

The problem was approached by instituting a water audit in each department. Results of the audit defined the use and possible reuse of water within the plant. These involve: producing water suitable for the processing of textile products; supplying water suitable for boiler feed in power plants; and, preventing corrosion in metal tanks and pipe lines. Some forms of water reuse will reduce the costs of process water.

Appropriate methods for recycle are dependent upon costs of water and effluent disposal, limitations of water supplies, and local conditions. A general approach for textile waste treatment was given by Leatherland He discussed sources of pollutants in the textile industry and re- viewed the potential of both conventional and advanced waste treatment processes for renovating textile waste discharges for reuse and recycle purposes.

Porter and Sargent provided a comprehensive examination of waste- water treatment techniques for the textile industry. Recovery of reuseable chemicals, water and energy was considered. Wastewater problems of the tex- tile finishing industry were presented by Stiebert Several practical solutions to these problems were discussed.

Water conservation through recycling is gaining in importance. Water reuse in the textile industry was discussed by Laude Seven methods of reducing water use in the textile industry including recycle and renovation and recycle were described, but it was indicated that zero discharge could not be achieved As a result of water recycle, higher- strength wastes will have to be treated before final discharge.

Gardiner and Borne examined the influence of the use of water and chemicals and the volume and characteristics of process effluents on water reuse in the textile industry. Parish indicated that water for reuse in the textile industry must have a low level of color and suspended solids, moderately or low levels of total solids, with less concern for BOD or COD. He evaluated wastewater treatment systems with respect to producing an effluent for reuse in the tex- tile industry.

Treatment methods which are examined include conventional biological treatment, flocculation, activated carbon, ion exchange, pretreat- ment, direct catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and multi-stage evaporation. Parish reviewed treatment methods and cost factors for textile processing effluents. Water quality standards necessary for reuse of pro- cessing effluents are presented.

Reuse of treated or untreated process baths can reduce costs. Further cost reductions can be realized by waste heat recovery. Potential cost savings through in-plant modifications and controls for the textile industry are outlined by Atwood et al. These include reduction of process water; reuse of cooling, printing, and effluent waters; recovery of several agents; handling of effluents; and cleaning of waters.

By designing strategies for process-water and chemical consumption, reuse, and treatment to meet the specific needs of the mill facility, effluent requirements should be economically met. The literature was reviewed and an annotated bibliography prepared to supplement information obtained from people working in the indus- try, designing waste treatment plants, and enforcing state and federal water pollution regulations.

It was concluded that more research was needed on water reuse in textile plants. Mair et al. General charac- teristics are presented for wastewater produced at a cotton finishing plant, a dyehouse, and a bank note printing press. Sodium hydroxide has been recovered from cotton textile mill discharges through evaporation and dialy- sis. Application of the Envirotech Salt Recovery Process, used for pulp and paper mill wastes, to textile mills wastes is suggested. Chemical precipitation with metallic salts has been used to recover percent of the CMC in sizing bath effluents for reuse, while adsorption and molecular filtration have been used for PVA.

Research on use of activated carbon in the treatment of textile wastewaters for reuse is described. Several processes available for treating textile effluents for reuse were described by Dettrich The systems were discussed in terms of both costs and performance. Porter concluded that it is both economic- ally desirable and technically feasible to reuse treated wastewater in the dyeing and finishing industry.

Paulson proposed wastewater treatment and reuse as an alternative to solvent dyeing. Complete regeneration and reuse of the effluent stream were proposed as the best solutions to textile waste treatment problems. Dixit discussed the quality of water for reuse, methods of reducing water consumption, and steps required to achieve recycle.

Rouba considered the use of water with a low degree of impurities in a closed-circuit system. He discussed various methods for treatment of textile wastewaters to this end. Sedzikowaki and Dobrowolski described work on water reuse carried out at the textile Research Institute at Lodz, Poland.

Arceivala presented a detailed review of water reuse practices of the textile industry in India. The review covered direct in-plant use, reuse after treatment, and reuse of the effluent in irrigation. A discussion on reuse of industrial wastewaters produced in the United Kingdom textile industry has been prepared Methods of textile water renovation being investigated include hyperfiltration or reverse osmosis with different types of membranes.

Costs of treatment were discussed. Techniques for conservation of process water used in the wool industry for scouring, rinsing, and dyeing processes were described. Porter et al. Experimental studies have shown that wastewater from a textile dyeing and finishing operation can be recycled , Wastewater was run through a set of hyperfiltration membranes which separated it into purified water and a concentrated dye residue fraction. Over a month period, up to 90 percent of the wastewater was recovered and used as the normal supply in all parts of the dyeing operation.

Concentrated dye residues can also be used to dye fabric. Detailed performance data were tabulated for the different types of membrane materials used. Cost estimates were given for the different membrane configurations. A textile finishing plant processing most synthetic fibers achieved 87 percent water recovery using hyperfiltration through dynamically formed dual-layer hydrous oxide-polyacrylate membranes on porous ceramic and carbon tubes without deterioation of membrane performance The purified pro- duct and the concentration residue from treatment of the dye waste have been directly reused in critical test dyeings.

This may provide an important economic advantage. Since wastewater can be treated at process temperatures, the reuse of hot water will also reduce costs. Effluents from production of cotton and cotton-synthetic and regenerated fiber fabrics purified by coagulation, and effluents from production of re- generated cellulose and synthetic fiber fabrics purified on sand filters, were subjected to additional purification by sorption on granulated activated carbon in a three-column reactor Results indicate that this method of additional purification is not only effective in removing impurities but also presents the opportunity of achieving a closed cycle of process water.

Flexibility of the process makes it possible to control the degree of purifi- cation desired. The method is economically justified only when applied to effluents that have been tested chemically or biologically or to effluents with a low concentration of impurities, such as wash waters. Brandon etr al.

The evaluations included performance assessment of dif- ferent types of commercially available membranes, reuse of both renovated water and waste concentrates, and treatability of wastewater concentrates by conventional means. Both cellulose acetate and dynamic membranes, when used with the recommended pretreatment, proved feasible for wastewater reno- vation.

When 90 percent of the feed was recovered, renovated water was satisfactory for reuse in scouring, bleaching, dyeing, and finishing. Suc- cessful reuse of residual concentrates containing significant quantities of dyes and chemicals was not demonstrated. Treatability of the residual concentrate by conventional processes produced effluent equivalent in quality to current plant discharges.

Kachel and Keinath detailed a schematic flow diagram of a proposed textile printing wastewater renovation and reclamation system. Projected costs for three system alternatives indicate that the alternative which centers on the water reuse concept has distinct economic advantages over those in which treated wastewaters are discharged to a receiving stream. Dyebath reuse was evaluated for batch dyeing of nylon carpet, nylon pantyhose, and polyester yarn After an initial, standard dyeing of a batch of nylon carpet, water removed during the dyeing process was replaced and dyes were replenished.

The recycled bath was then used to dye the next batch. Carpet and pantyhose dyed with reused dyebaths were considered acceptable as first-quality merchandise. Both single shade and multicolor dyeing of the polyester yarn with dyebath reuse resulted in acceptable color- ation. In addition, there was an estimated savings in water and energy of 65 percent and 15 percent respectively for carpet; 90 percent and 35 percent for pantyhose; and, 81 percent and 41 percent for polyester yarn.

A new regenerative evaporation recycling system has been developed in West Germany for treatment and recycling of wastewaters generated in textile finishing operations Evaporation is done under elevated pressure, and the distillate is of the highest purity. The residue is concentrated to 50 percent and incinerated to obtain dry salts as a residue. The extra cost of evaporation is minimal.

The IBK wastewater treatment and water recycling method, designed by IBK Koeppl of West Germany, has been used by textile manufacturers in response to increasing costs ofL water and wastewater treatment Based on the principle of regenerating vaporization, the process treats effluents and re- covers process substances. Steam produced during vaporization can also be used in heat-consuming equipment used in textile finishings.

The high- quality distilled effluent can be used immediately in the power or water supply cycles. Additional treatment with activated carbon can qualify the regenerated water for other industrial uses. Heat recovery by the IBK recy- cling system lowers total energy costs for textile wastewater treatment. Montgomery described a water reclamation system at a textile dyeing plant. The system recycles 1.

Two 20, gallon fiberglass tanks are fed by four working tanks of 10, gallons each. Chemical treatment and filtration are used to clean the water. The entire treatment sequence re- quires only four minutes, with another five to six minutes being required to feed the four tanks. Due to the short treatment interval, cleansed water re-enters the dyehouse at relatively high temperatures, thereby reducing final consumption and costs for heating dyewater.

Lusher described water conservation measures taken in the linen industry to reduce waste discharges. Several methods to conserve water were reviewed, including repeated use of rinse waters. Chemical treatment and reuse seem to be the most effective way of disposing of industrial laundry wastewaters from the textile-cleaning industry Wool effluent can be recycled or discharged to the sewer; however, yarn effluent ultrafiltrate cannot be recycled because the water contains dyes.

Overall capital and operating costs were presented. Water recycling and wastewater treatment adopted at a small-capacity cotton dyeing plant in East Germany has resulted in introduction of waste- water treatment by precipitation with ferrous sulfate for recycling in the flushing process Hot water used for rapid driers also can be utilized in high-temperature equipment if it is softened.

Boiler vapor condensates are also recycled. Burke and Burke discussed use of filtration, activated carbon adsorption and ion exchange for treatment of dye plant effluents and water recycling. The particular type of waste treatment required for dye removal is a function of the class of dye and its chemical composition. The parti- cular system examined was designed for complete recycle of dyehouse effluent.

The process described is capable of recycling about 80 percent of the water used in typical dye house operations. Operating and capital costs are such that this system pays for itself over a five to ten year period when compared with conventional treatment processes. Pilot plant evaluations are necessary to determine efficiency and economics of the system for a particular dyehouse wastewater.

The role of reverse osmosis in desalting and recycling textile dye wastewaters was investigated by El-Nashar A pilot plant was construc- ted containing a precast membrane reverse osmosis loop and a dynamic membrane loop. Test results indicated that product water for each module could be recycled in the dyeing process; however, all membranes suffered from a tendency to become fouled with organic or inorganic colloids in the feedwater. Lint content of wash water effluent, particularly from textile wet processing operations, has previously hampered attempts at recycling because of the difficulty inherent in removing lint effectively enough in a practical way to condition the water satisfactorily for reuse A filter system is disclosed in which circulation of the liquid to be filtered is such that a predominant portion is continually returned through the filter unit to produce a filtered permeate amounting to 70 percent or more of the feed while also tending to clear the filter media continually.

Day discussed the in-plant reuse of water from fortrel polyester fiber production. He described a new plant to be built when the water situa- tion was such that reuse was necessary and economically feasible. The treat- ment scheme would consist of a plastic media trickling filter preceding the activated sludge unit. The activated sludge unit would be followed by polishing ponds, algae removal screens, and activated carbon.

The recovered water would be used selectively in the plant, mainly as cooling water make-up. The program consisted of: 1 pre- treatment of cooling waters for removal of heavy metals; 2 in-plant modifications and additions to the existing system to increase treatment plant capacity; and 3 a post-treatment system for effluent polishing prior to selected reuse.

Treated water was reused at a rate of 0. Carrique and Jauregui described a system installed at an Argentine textile mill to segregate the sodium hydroxide waste stream and reclaim the sodium hydroxide. The decision was made to install the system because high treatment costs for sodium hydroxide effluents and high replacement costs for sodium hydroxide itself made it more economical to reclaim the chemical then to replace it.

Jennings conducted an exploratory investigation of recovery and reuse of textile size materials. Carboxymethylcellulose was dissolved from cotton warp with minimal amounts of water and the resulting solution used as the basis for further sizing formulation. One-third of the applied CMC could be removed from the sized warp obtaining a two percent solution.

New formu- lations prepared from the solution gave satisfactory performance. The waste handling system for the Fieldcrest Stokesdale, North Carolina, screen-printing plant produces no effluent The complete waste flow is treated through extended aeration, chemical coagulation, filtration, chlori- nation, and incineration, then recycled back into production use. Whittall described a system for reclaiming laundry effluent for the textile industry.

Used water from the washers flows over a heat reclaimer made of copper coils. Cooled water enters a settling tank via a series of filters which remove large insoluable matter. Water is then cir- culated through diffusing devices for oxidation of organic matter. Aerated water passes through additional filters and is then pumped through the heat reclaimer to the main hot water tanks. Thus, the volume of water discharge is reduced, heat is recovered, and the quality of the effluent is improved.

Eaddy and Vann reported results of a demonstration project to treat effluent from two fabric finishing and dyeing plants. Permit require- ments could be met with chemical additions ahead of multimedia filtration of biological effluents. Pilot plant studies were performed on recycled efflu- ent for dyeing man-made fibers. Brandon and Gaddis reported on use of hyperfiltration to enable recycling of chemicals, water, and energy from textile finishing operations.

Hot water could be recycled when purified with hyperfiltration. Polyvinyl alcohol recovery with 1-year payouts have been achieved. Hyperfiltration and ultrafiltration are pressure-driven membrane proces- ses which have potential for recycle of water, energy, and chemicals in wet finishing operations. Gaddis et al.

Hog and Krogh described various purification and regeneration techniques on wastes from textile and dyeing processes with respect to their performance and potential effects of recycling the effluent for use in tex- tile processes. Brandon described a pilot hyperfiltration process used to purify and recover 75 to 90 percent of the wastewater from a textile dyeing and finishing plant. The use of ultrafiltration for removal of polyvinyl alcohol from textile mill wastewaters was developed by Aurich Three years of operating experience indicate good and economic performance of the system in producing a reuse product.

Zawdzke described results of laboratory-scale tests carried out on cotton bleachery wastes in an attempt to reuse the water. The activated sludge treatment used required added nutrients and resulted in percent BOD removal. The water was clean enough to be reused for rinsing raw cotton after bleaching. Due to acute water shortage and difficulties of waste disposal from textile dyeing plants in Israel, Rebhum, et al.

Separation of weak wastes from rinsing and wash operations was found to be feasible. By treatment of this wastewater in an aerated lagoon followed by neutralization, flocculation, filtration and adsorption, a colorless, turbidity and detergent free effluent was obtained meeting quality requirements for in-plant reuse.

To maintain a constant TDS level and avoid excessive salinity build-ups, part of the effluent has to be withdrawn from the recycle system; however, at least 70 percent of the efflu- ent can be recycled. Cost of treatment is comparable to that of fresh water supply. Suchecki reported on a wastewater treatment system built and operated on a pilot plant scale at a textile mill manufacturing indigo-dyed denim.

The system will recycle not only the expensive indigo dye but also the hot process water and caustic. When in full operation about 75 percent of the treated wastewater will be fil- tered, stored and reused. Rub described the application of ion exchangers to water reuse in the textile industry.

These should be used where small volumes of very high purity water would be required. Artyukhov et al. Samfield reviewed major water uses in textile plants and identi- fied some techniques available for conservation and reuse. Both granular and powered carbon systems were discussed.

Saito and Yoshida used a carbon column to remove dyes from wastewater with the effluent being recycled back to the plant. Laboratory tests using activated carbon to treat dye wastes indicated it was feasible to achieve a quality suitable for recycle Rhys observed that adsorption on granulated activated carbon of dye wastes from a textile dyebath reduced effluent organic content and color to a level suitable for dyebath water reuse. Carbon adsorption operations in three textile dyeing plants were detailed.

Single stage treatment with carbon was normally not sufficient to produce a good quality effluent that could be reused. A bed of activated carbon is used to adsorb dyestuffs from the , gpd of effluent water from the dyehouse of a carpet mill, after which the water is reused Jhawor and Sleigh compared reverse osmosis and activated carbon for treating dyeplant wastes.

Reverse osmosis also removed color and over 95 percent of the total dissolved solids lending the water suitable for reuse. Porter conducted a pilot-plant study on a textile waste stream. He found carbon adsorption to be a suitable method for regeneration of raw wastewaters for reuse. MaCrum and VanStone discussed the successful use of granular activated carbon in the treatment of wastewaters from two textile mills. In both instances, treated wastewater is reused in normal plant operations.

A method for reclaiming textile wastes that contain dyes, wetting and scouring agents, caustic soda, and other chemicals was detailed by Pangle By use of activated carbon, the Hollytex Carpet Mills in Southampton, Pennsylvania, has been able to reclaim 80 percent of the water used in the dyeing operations. Phipps described the textile wastewater renovation system at the Hollytex Carpet Mills in Southampton, Pennsylvania.

The system, which con- sists of an activated carbon adsorber, has consistantly reclaimed 80 percent of the wastewater flow. Renovated water has been used for making up new dye solutions and for rinsing dyed carpeting. The system required only a 50 x ft. Rock discussed water use in woolen mills with special emphasis on possible reuse of effluents.

Harker also discussed reuse of effluents from wool processing with or without pretreatment.

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