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Macgowan, his predecessor, and made it a greater power and success than it ever had been before. He was a] le, after some years' residence, to write and converse in Arabic, Spanish, and German. He was well acquainted with Hebrew, and made a special study of Hebrew literature that was directly connected with the Temple and its services.

His scientific contributions to the medical journals were many, the chief and best known being ' The Fevers of Jerusalem. The Jews and Moslems had absolute confidence in him, and his name is still a household word. It was through his influence and interest that the present Leper Hospital was founded l y Lady Raffinburg.

He made a careful and systematic examina- tion of each leper in Jerusalem and Ramleh, and was at that time one of the authorities on leprosy. John of Jerusalem for the services he rendered. He was a member of the Scotch Meteorological Society, and wrote a special monograph on the climate of Jerusalem.

He took an interest in everything that was connected with Palestine, and all his work was thoroughly done. His name was respected by all who knew him, and especially by the Jews of Palestine, who felt that in him they had a true friend, as well as an experienced and able doctor.

After twenty-five years' service in Jerusalem he retired from the work. His name will never be forgotten in Jerusalem, and although he is dead ' he still speaks. Chaplin served on the Committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society, and his last work for them was the revision of the Yiddish translation of the Gospel according to St. His life was one of strenuous work, and it was only towards its close that the repeated attacks of malarial fever from which he suffered disabled him and ultimately caused his death.

The time spent in excavation during the jDeriod covered by the present report was about two months. A few days after the middle of August I had the pleasure of welcoming Mr. He came fresh from the important excava- tion now in progress under the latter institution at Palaiokastro in Crete ; and not only did this experience make him a valuable associate in my endeavour to explain some of the objects unearthed at Gezer during his stay, but he was able to inform me of analogous results at Crete to those arrived at in my own work.

These, when they have been examined more closely, may be foimd to involve historical results of great importance. For the present it would be premature to enter into details regarding an investiga- tion, which it will be impossible to carry out thoroughly without the co-operation of the Cretan excavators.

Towards the end of August, as soon as the state of the works permitted me temporarily to close them, I suspended the digging, and with Mr. Currelly went on a short tour through the country. In a hurried ride over a track so well beaten it is of course impossible to make many new observations. The few notes we took, though not directly bearing on the Gezev excavation, may be lecorded here, as they are hardly important enough to submit as an independent commuiii- cation : — 1.

In this conclusion I find we are in disagreement with the opinion expressed by Drs. The German explorers are able to point to sherds of classical vases of black ware, which they picked up, to corroborate their judgment ; we happened to tind nothing but lioman remains, and it appeared to us that below the thick stratum of Pioman brick with Avhich the southern half of the island is covered, and of which a good section ca;i be seen along the sea-shore, there was little or no earlier debris.

In occasional wayside conversations with natives passed on the route, when approaching the site of Samaria, I noticed that the local pronunciation of the name of the modern village on that site is not accurately represented in the ordinary printed form. The older men uuiforndy called the place Sebusteh, with a strong accent on the second syllable, thereby exactly reproducing the name of the Herodian town, Some of the younger people have picked up, no doubt from tourists and their servants, the pronunciation Sehusthjch, with the third syllable accented, while others compromise by retaiidng the accent on the second syllable and shortening the vowel of the third ; but the elders were practically unanimous in ]3referring the shorter form.

I suspect that a systematic enquiry among the older inhabita its of Palestine would result in eliminating a good many other cases of the -yeh termination so frequently appended in print to Palestiidaa place-names. It is certainly wrong in Tell cH-Sufi ji-h, a not uncommon perversion of the name of the mound recently excavated by the Fund. At three spots in the way we observed that the ground was strewn with paheolithic tliut flakes, indicating pre-historic occupations.

At none of these places were fine flints noticed, but the artificial nature of the flakes was unmistakable. The work at Gezer was recommenced towards the end of Sej tember, and has lieen continued since without In-eak. The results have been of consideral le interest, but this report iipon them will, for reasons that will appear, be probably shorter than any other of the series. The excavation was resumed in the trench already partially cut on the "Western Hill, and for al out a month the whole force of the staff was concentrated there, with the exception of one gang of labourers who were employed in tracing the line of the city wall.

No oljjects of special interest M'ere unearthed, except duplicates of specimens already described ; it is therefore unnecessary to say anything al Out these at present. It is a small chinch fragment, represented in Fig. The rectangular base measures 1 inches long, inch thick, and 1 inch high.

On each face of the latter is a cross in a lozenge-shaped panel, while each of the Ijroad faces of the l ase bears an inscription in Greek letters. The inscription on the other face is worn and chipped, in consequence of which it is not fully legilile ; the only letters that are certain are Z EYC, which would be complete in itself, were it not for the traces of other letters; one preceding the Z, and probably fliree in the second line, preceding the vertical stroke.

The traces are too meagre to enable the letters to l e recognised. On the base of the stone a deep cross has been cut over a shallow scratched cross which existed previously. It is cjuite out of place in the tell de1 ris. It is possible that valual le results may be expected when the work on the Western Hill is resumed at the point where it has for the moment been suspended. A section of a large public liuilding or jjalace, dating about B.

The foundations of the part exposed show that its leading feature is a rectangular hall, about 25 feet wide, and certainly more than 40 feet long, built of stone walls, 4 feet thick, and having a row of columns down the centre.

Round it are smaller chambers belonging to the same structiire. That it is a palace may perhaps be suggested by the discovery in the neighbourhood of a sherd of pottery of Cretan origin Fig. Mackenzie, of the Cretan Exploration Fund who has also recently visited the works , told me was comparal le with the best specimens of the best period of the pottery from Knossos.

In the last Quarferly Statement, , p. This fragment consisted of three courses of well-squared stones built over the foundation of the outer wall in tracing which they were exposed , extending, as was ascertained by a tunnel driven along them, for a length of 36 feet, and returning at each end. Two towers, of shallow projection, occurred in the course of this wall. The building had thus every appearance of being the south side of a small castle or keep. The stone-dressing, though not exactly like that usually associated with the work of Crusader masons, might conceivably have been a provincial imitation thereof ; and in view of its superiority to the masonry foiuid elsewhere on the mound, I felt that its assignment to the Crusaders was jiistifiable.

Three or four weeks after returning to work, being desirous of examining this supposed castle which did not promise to be of great size, or to call for many labourers , I detailed about half of the staff to clear the ground from above it. A few days' digging showed that the building was not a castle, and could not be assigned to the Crusaders ; and a few more assured me that I had to do with a magnificent and extensive structure, no doulit the main entrance to the city in the Maccabean period, and possibly, in addition, something yet more interesting.

The whole force of labourers was, therefore, transferred to the site, and it is still under examination. It is unfortunate that this report has to l e sent from Gezer at the present time. Each day as the work proceeds new details are exposed, so that neither plans nor descriptions, nor yet theories, presented at the moment of writing can claim any finality.

I therefore illustrate this preliminary description merely with a temporary plan of the remains thus far uncovered, and for the exact position of the gateway I refer the reader to the plan of the excavations, published with the eighth report in July, The entrance-gate now described is situated at this inset. Li the accomj anying plan, where it is marked A H, will Ije seen the fragment of masonry that first attracted my attention to this place.

It is a thick and much ruined wall of rough rubble, faced with the well-squared stones already mentioned. It is 36 feet long, and has two shallow towers, of projection from 1 foot to 3 feet 4 inches. As will l e seen hy reference to the plan, the wall and towers are not set out truly scpiare. The courses of facing-stones are each about 1 foot 6 inches high. This wall, for reasons that will presently he understood, we shall for convenience term the " middle wall. This pavement rises gently from east to west.

It appears to commence abruptly near the eastern end of the Middle Wall, and it is interrupted at the western end. There seems to have been some kind of arcading crossing the pavement between the points DM; at least there is here a threshold of cut stones resembling those of the wall, and having in the middle what looks like the much-weathered base of a column N.

It is to be noticed, however, that no evidence of a respond is to be seen on the face of the tower, such as we should expect if there were actually an arcade at this point. The outer southern face of the latter wall has not yet been exposed, so that I am as yet unal le to say anything about the architectural features that it presented to the valley.

We shall call this fragment the Front Wall in the present description. Thus we have a passage 36 feet long, and from 14 to 15 feet wide, flanked by stone walls of well-dressed masonry, which have two towers projecting inwards. There can scarcely be any doubt that over the walls Avas a vault roofing the passage. The recesses between the towers DEF G, and the corresponding recess opposite were possibly intended for receiving a portcullis that closed the gateway ; the space, however 8 feet 4 inches , appears rather too wide.

Two stones, 3 feet 4 inches long, side by side, with a groove 3 inches wide between them, are let into the pavement at P. That these have something to do with a door-fastening is probable, though I confess that I do not yet see clearly how it was worked. The pavement is, as I have just said, interrupted at the west end of the two flanking walls ; but, fortunately, a fragment remains a few feet further on which enables us to describe clearly its subsequent course.

After emerging from the tower it doul les on itself, and at the same time rises at a steeper gradient. When the pit was first dug a white line, evidently following the pavement, was observed on the face of the wall in the back ground here called the Back Wall ; this was afterwards washed out by a shower of rain, but its course was well determined before this took place.

No doubt it was the trampled clay brought in by the feet of passers by. The gradient is about 1 in The difference in level between the uppermost and lowermost section of the pavement is 18 feet 3 inches. The Question now arises whether this causeway was covered during the upper part of its course, between the Middle and Back Walls, by a vault parallel to Uiat which most probably roofed the lower part. Of this there is not wanting evidence.

Eight courses there remain. The line of foundation of the return side of the tower trends upwai-d to this course, and there is no doubt that they originally joined. Thus the return side of the tower was prolonged to meet the upper part of the pavement.

It can hardly be questioned that the pavement here ran under a rather narrow gateway. Whether before reaching tlie gateway it passed under a vault cannot l e definitely stated ; the walls that would have borne such a vault are too ruined to allow a ]jositive conclusion to be arrived at, though it is not impossible that a continuation of the excavation may give a clue to the solution of the question. The retaining wall.

The walls R Q U no doul t helped to prevent iutrudeis from entering the city otherwise than through the gate. Q R is prolonged in a curved line to meet the Back "Wall at "W. When first uncovered the space enclosed between this cui've and the back wall was found to be full of small round stones closely packed together. These possibly were a foundation for the pavement.

This curved wall was removed in order to ojjen the older debris lying below before the nature of the structure of wdiich it formed a part had been fully realised. This view, however, opened up so many perplexities and was involved in so many difficulties, on the details of which I need not enlarge, that I was forced, after consideration, to seek some other theory. This inference adds some probal ility to the suggestion that the upper part of the pavement was vaulted over as well as the lower.

So far as the wall in question has been exposed, it commences about 6 feet from the present termination of the pavement at the upper end. At the end ;H it returns northward, but only a few feet of this return eastern side have as yet l een exposed ; enough, however, has been opened to show that there is here a chamljer, not unlike the chamlier in the first tower found in the inner wall, north of the great High Place. There is nothing in the appearance of the building at this point to prevent our regarding this as the corner of just such a tower.

From the corner, however, the wall runs in a straight course almost due Avestwards for 61 feet 5 inches to -f , after which it takes the outward curve just referred to, accommodating it to the line of the paved causeway. The western end of this tower has not yet been found. Of this tower there are two foundation courses, which, from their roughness, must have been intended to be underground.

Over them are built two smaller towers X Y Z a, and another to the left, beyond the limits of the plan , with a passage between them, paved and sloping like the paved causeway already described, but much superior and carefully smoothed with Ijeaten clay and plaster.

The section of this passage that lies within the limits of the plan is marked Z « f3 7. That the two gates — this and the entiance approached by the cause- way — are contemporary, there can be no doubt whatever ; their beiug associated with identical types of pottery makes this unquestionable.

What, then, is their relation one to the other? The first theory that naturally occurs is, that we have here two city gates, and that the paved causeway must have bifurcated at some point in order to lead to both of tliem. The two gates must therefore be completely inde- pendent. If the second gate be a city gate, it is not obvious why the builders weakened their city by making it at all, for the great gate with the covered passage would surely answer all possible requirements.

So far as the excavation has advanced, I can only record my present belief, that this is not a city gate, and the wall iii which it is set is not a city M'all. The gate, however, leads outside the city, and if not a city gate, can only be a private doorway for the use of some person who occupied the building containing it, and who had the right of exit and entrance at all times. This could only be the governor or chief military authority in charge of the city.

I can only say that at present the probability seems all in favour of the structure being the residence of the governor of the city. One is strongly tempted to identify it with the dwelling-place that Simon Maccabeus built for himself in the city, and afterwards handed over to his son John 1 Mace, xiii, 48, This is not impossible ; it is even likely ; but in the present stage of the work it would be premature to press the identification. The walls of the towers containing tlie second gate are drafted, with central bosses.

They are three in number. At the upper end it is stopped by a slab laid diagonally across it. At the lower end it is 1 feet 10 inches wide and 2 feet 7 inches deep; at the point where it is stopped it is 2 feet 2 inches wide, and 1 foot 9 inches deep.

The drain is constructed of stones, of the same general character as those com- posing the tower, set on edge ; the floor is also paved with stones. The second sewer e t from which that just described branches, is wider and deeper, but of inferior construction. It is 4 feet 6 inches deep, and 4 feet across at its upper end, and is built of small stones lined with cement. It, too, is stopped at its upper end. Of these drains the first described seems to be the oldest.

Its line can easily be traced in the floor of the sewer from which it branches. The first drain ran by the public highway, for some distance being covered by the tower. It was found to be large enough to admit of an adventurous person creeping through it unobserved to the castle, and was therefore closed and deflected along the private Avay, where it was perhaps felt that it could be better guarded. Experience, perhaps, proved that even this was unsafe, and the third drain was opened, passing through a hole too small to permit of a person squeezing through.

This is the point to which the excavation has now brought us, and I must defer till the next report the further developments that may be expected shortly. This discovery, I may say in passing, illustrates the two characteristics which this wonderful mound of Gezer has proved to possess to a marked degree. Wherever a pit is dug something of interest is almost sure to make its appearance, and the discovery is almost sure to l e of an unexpected character.

I commenced this pit looking for a comparatively uninteresting Crusaders' castle, and have found instead a magnificent fortified gateway of the second century B. I have said that for a time I kept a gang of labourers at work on the outer city wall. Practically, the complete course of this wall has now been determined with the exception of a short stretch at the western end of the mound.

I estimate its total length at about 4, feet, which is rather more than one-third the length of the modern wall of Jerusalem. A careful study of the masonry has l eeu made of all the exposed parts, and the associated antiquities have lieen examined in order to find whether they had any evidence to offer.

The first observation that must be made is, that further excavation has convinced me that the circular pits in the tops of the towers, referred to in the description just cited, are not part of the original scheme, but were dug as grain stores or to serve some similar purpose, by the occupants of the houses built on the top of the Avail.

Now that these houses have Ijeen removed, and a consider- a1 le stretch of the tower completely exposed, it is obvious that they cannot have been Iniilt till after the wall had fallen out of use and become ruined. As it is inconceivable that a city of the importance of Gezer should have existed at any period without a wall, the ruin of the inner wall which contains the brick gate must have been synchronous with the erection of the outer wall which superseded it.

If, there- fore, we can date the houses erected over the brick towers, we are in a position to assign a minor limit to the date of the outer wall. The evidence of these was absolutely unanimous. Every dateable object was contemporary with Amenhotep III, several of them bore his name, and I feel cpiite certain in assigning these houses to the middle of the second millenium B.

This chronological result is not a little startling. The outer wall is no doubt the latest of the defences of the city, but, though as we shall see repaired from time to time, it is funda- mentally of the respectalile antiquity of the Tell el-Amarna correspondence. This outer wall served as the defence for the city built over the brick towers, and for two other cities that overlaid it — three in all. It thus lasted in use from aljout to about B.

Now the inner wall, that containing the brick towers, also serves three cities : and if we may assume the rate of growth to have been fairly uniform, we are led Ixack to B. Underneath this there is a further depth of 12 feet, not 1 inch of which is virgin soil, between the rock and the foundation of the inner wall.

The lowermost stratum contains sherds rcsemliling those found in the caves. On the same scale we should have to put l ack the beginning of life on the mound to B. The excavation has shown that the brick towers are erected on a foundation of stone, 3 feet in thickness, and that the stretches of wall at the sides of the towers are also of stone.

This suggests the question why brick was used at all; the normal building material in the city and neighbourhood is stone, which is more easily procurable than is brick. The only answer that I can see is the suggestion that possil ly the towers are not native work, but were erected during the occupation of the city by some brick-using foreign race. The only race satisfying the condition that has left traces in the debris at so early a date is Egypt ; and perhaps we may see in the brick gate evidence of a concpiest of Gezer by Egypt previous to the capture effected by Tahutmes III, which is the first event in the city's history of which we have a written record.

With the possible exception of this assault by Tahutmes, all the attacks on Gezer mentioned in the literary history must have been directed against the outer wall ; and we are led to examine the masonry of this structure in order to determine whether it offers any trace of the injuries and consec[uent repairs it must from time to time have received. Such traces are not far to seek. So far as the wall has been exposed, there are 30 towers.

An examination of the masonry shows that, with two exceptions, all of the 30 are insertions. The masonry of the main line of the wall consists of fairly large stones, dressed roughly with a hammer only, and packed with small field stones filling the corners and joints.

The joints are wide, and the stones set in mud. The towers, however, show smaller stones, well chiselled, and dressed to a truly rectangular shape. In every case but the two towers just mentioned it is found that, either immediately at the point of contact of the tower with the wall, or more.

The well-squared stones appear on the tower side of this joint, but never on the wall side. The inference I draw from this is that at some time there was an extensive scheme of repair and strengthening carried out, and that at intervals along the wall a section was cut out and a massive square tower inserted.

The two exceptional towers fortunately remain, not only to show that the wall in its original design was provided with towers, but also to negative the alternate hypothesis, that isolated towers were first built of good masonry, and afterwards joined by lengths of wall of an inferior type of construction. The masonry of these two towers is identical with that of the wall, and they are bonded to it.

Near the west end of the north side, for a length of aljout feet, the masonry of the wall, though inferior to that of the towers, is of the same general character, and I believe contemporary. It is reasonable to infer that the wall for this length was breached by some hostile invasion, and that it was afterwards repaired and strengthened. It has since been ascertained that six of the towers along the wall display the same addition, and that a seventh, which owing to a settlement had fallen out of the perpen- dicular, has been buttressed with similar masonry.

These six are the two corner toAvers at the east end, and two each on the north and south sides. It is qvxite safe to say that this sloping face is in every case a later addition, as no builders in their senses would have erected well-built square towers, with carefully-dressed corner stones, merely to serve as cores for roughly-built bastions of a different shape. When we examine the literary history of Gezer, in order to find whether any light can be thrown on these successive buildings and rebuildings, an interesting series of coincidences present themselves.

Consider first the narrative of 1 Kings ix, The king of Egypt can hardly have burnt the city and decimated the inhabitants without breaching the walls ; and a building monarch like Solomon might be expected to lavish especial care on a city like Gezer, in which he hacl so direct a personal interest.

I feel at present strongly inclined to seek in the square towers inserted at irregular intervals along the wall for the tangilile traces of this important event in the city's history. The next reference of interest is the fortification by Bacchides, carried out during the year he held the city 1 Mace, ix, Now the roughly-built bastions surrounding the towers at certain points are just such a fortification as might have been added chmng a brief military occupation.

Bacchides may be supposed to have seen that the square towers though superior in strength to a similar length of blank wall, and presumably superior to whatever towers may have existed in the wall previous to their insertion were a source of weakness, owing to the straight joints that ran through the wall on each side of every one of them.

He accordingly pro- ceeded to mask these joints by building his bastions. The work is hasty, and put together with no pretence of art ; and it is very incomplete. It probably Avas the intention of the builder of the liastions to erect similar structures round each of the towers, but he was interrupted when he had finished six.

Ill the report pulilished in the last number of the Quarterhi Stafemcnf, dealing with the Inirial customs of the Gezerites, I referred at length to the deposits of food found in the earlier tombs. But I omitted to mention a singular detail in connection with these food deposits. The omission was intentional, as I wished to be quite sure of my ground before committing myself to print. In ;i luimber of tombs, all about B.

In one, for instance, was a small earthen ware jug, containing the finger Tjones of an infant. In another was a similar jug, in which was an adult patella. Elsewhere was an infant's sacral bones. Most remarkable of all was a bowl into which the calvaria of a skull was exactly fitted, obviously with intention. It is represented in section in Fig. I am permitted, through the kindness of Dr.

Merrill, to c[Uote a parallel Init apparently later example from Beit Jibrin. This Fig. Two possible explanations suggest themselves. We may here find a reminiscence of a funeral feast in which originally ceremonial cannibalism had been practised. Or else the bones may have been regarded as amulets : superstitions attached to such relics as the fingers of drowned persons are familiar to everyone, and these bones may have had some such virtue.

The preponderance of infant bones will not escape attention. Through the soil on the Tell, extending over a long lapse of time, are found numerous specimens of a class of object that I have never seen describee] elsewhere. These are, apparently, spindle" whorls ; their peculiarity consists in their being made of the heads of human femora, sawn off and perforated through or near the fossa of the inter-articular ligament.

Spindle-whorls of stone, bone, ivory, and pottery are found in profusion, showing that it was no poverty of material that led the Gezerites to adopt femur-heads. Had it been merely the obviously convenient shape that suggested the adaptation, we might have expected to find other hiiman liones used for other purposes for which they are equally well adapted So far as I can find, however, these spindle-whorls to call them what they appear to be are in a solitary class by themselves, and without the light that may be expected from comparison with parallel customs, I have no explanation to offer regarding them.

They seem, however, worth bearing in mind in connection with the custom of depositing single bones by themselves inside tombs, which is now broueht to notice. Baldensperger, Esq. There are five words which require to be mentioned.

The fii'st is hvjlh, a common stick of oak, about 3 to Si feet in length, which is carried in the hand or under the arm. It is not to lean upon, and, in fact, it shows that the holder is a man of position, superior to the workman or day-labourer. A good stick of this kind is supposed to have forty knots. One associates with this the Hebrew sehet, Avith which the Israelite chastised his servant Ex. One given to me years ago, with great secrecy, was supposed to be able to drive away serpents, and I was enjoined to let it remain stored up carefully.

Judah's staff maffeh, Gen. As the mehjdnet is considered to be sacred and is somewhat short, it is not used as a walking-stick ; Jonathan, we remember, stretched out his maffeh, dipped its broad handle into the honey, and ate it off his staff 1 Sam, xiv, The shepherds cut the stafls themselves in the forests, and, after peeling them partly, cut out different designs in the bark ; the stick is then passed over fire.

After this the rest of the peel is removed, and the rod is ready. No doubt Jacob took such staves and peeled or prepared them whilst going about with Laban's flocks Gen. The shepherd David came to the camp of Israel and set out against C4oliath with his nud'h'i 1 Sam. The prophet Jeremiah speaks of the beauty of the mal'kd Jer. We may, perhaps, compare Jeremiah ii, 27 ; Hosea iv, The Hebrew word is used of the staves with which the princes digged the well at Beer Numbers xxi, 18 , and the angel which appeared before Gideon had one in his hand and touched the sacrifice and burnt it Judges vi, Elisha the prophet sends Gehazi with his mish'eneth to lay it on the dead child of the Shunnamite 2 Kings iv, The top is somewhat bent to aid the lame, whilst the blind man's stick is forked at the top.

The hooked haLur is a shorter staff than the European walking stick, and is not carried by the handle, but by the other end, and is essentially a riding stick. Bedouin horsemen always carry the bdMr in times of peace and war. The mafrak is essentially evei'ybody's and anybody's stick; it is cut from trees, especially the olive, and is generally used to beat animals or persons.

Its principal use is for purpose of chastise- ment. It is a little thinner than the hidlh, although the same name can be given to it. The term 'v. A smaller weapon of this kind is the dahhasse[t], Fig. It is found all over the mountainous regions of Palestine, and the fellahin stick it in the girdle with the head upwards and generally inclined to the left, so as to l e easily reached in case of emergency.

Is it the fvfhaJi which Leviathan deems as of little account as stublile Job xli, 29 1 The modern dabhm l eing of such universal use in Palestine, we may expect that its ancient representative should be mentioned at least once in the Bible. This kind of stick is imported from Syria, as the treeless plains of the district cannot furnish the necessary poles of hard wood.

The iron heads are made by the gypsies who pass throiigh the villages. What kind of instrument is meant hy the hand-weapon of wood refened to in Numbers xxxv, 18, is of course unknown ; it was probably one of the above. The fire-arms of modern Palestine comprise the familiar antiquated matchlock rifle, proliably in many cases handed down from father to son since the introchiction of rifles into the country about a century and a half ago.

The han1dc[f], or rifle, is very heavy, and the marksman hardly ever shoots at anything without leaning his hand on a rock or branch to steady his aim. The people are very fond of game, and when their other occupations allow them a day or more out they hunt either gazelles or hares, but more commonly pigeons and parti'idges, though they will not disdain turtle-doves, crows, ducks in winter, and any bird of passage ; starlings and thrushes are about the smallest l irds they like to shoot.

The hnj is an enclosure covered with reeds and thorn-bushes, situated at about twenty paces from a small isolated spring of water in the mountains. The hunter goes there and conceals himself long before daybreak, to await the partridges which come to drink only at dawn and then retire to the mountains, where they cannot easily be found.

Before the rifle was known the hunter provided himself with bow and arrows, and consequently the word for " to shoot " is derived from the word for a " bow. The hunter then hides one night, after having strewn the grain, in the enclosure, and when the birds approach shoots at them.

The hiraJ: has already been illustrated and described by Mr. Macalister in the QuarterJij Stakment of October, , pp. The shaking of the hiraJ:, as I have myself observed, attracts the attention of the ] irds, and they gather not only out of curiosity but also for mutual protection. Partridges gather together in much the same manner when a fox or jackals jjass, and the Ural, with its fox's head, resembles a fox.

The same also when a serpent enters the wall of a house ; all the sparrows of the neighliourhood habitually gather around and make a noise, because they often have their nests in such holes. Did the Hebrews know the biral.

One cannot help thinking of the speckled or painted bird to which the prophet Jeremiah refers xii, 9. Nearer the towns these three kinds of sport are not known, but the people make use of other artifices. Children use the familiar sieve propped up 1 y a short stick, to which is attached a long string reaching to some hiding place ; a few grains are strewn below the sieve, and when the small birds are well under the sieve the string is pulled and they are trapped. Besides this, bird-lime lUhaJc is put on trees or on bushes to catch lairds.

The gluey substance is made in Syria, where it is extracted from the Cordia Myxa or Sebesten fruits. The fruit of the Sebesten is about the size of a grape, and ripens in August, and is almost yellow ; the fruit when gathered is cut open and the inside is collected in a liig cauldron, together with the kernels ; it is then well beaten till it foams, and a solution of yellow arsenic tersulphide of arsenic mixed with water is added, and the whole is beaten up till it has a greenish hue.

Nets are frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, the common term being r6sheth Prov. With the Hebrew imh we have a parallel in the modern faJJi, which is a trap made of two wooden bows which are bound together at their ends so that they can open and shut. They are kept open by means of a" piece of wood, upon Avhich is laid food to attract birds. When touched the bows shut and the I ird is securely caught in the net Avhich is on the other side. Second Day. Abater sjDrings here, and in winter there is a stream.

The bed is marked by reeds. There are the remains of a rectangular building, not unlike the Roman station we examined yesterday on the opposite plateau. Here a road or track branches from the main road and goes uj the valley on this line of jjlateau. Germer Durand and Briinnow, the latter of whom took the same time between the group and the bed of the river as we did, viz.

One column bears the numeral CVHn According to this the group is the next in order to the lower group on the south side of the Mojib, on which several travellers have read the numeral CVHI Yet they lie rather more than 40 minutes apart, that is more than double a Roman mile it will be remembered we took only 15 minutes l etween the two groups on the south side. One expects a milestone between them, on the north bank, some 10 minutes or more above the stream.

No trace of this, however, has been reported hj any traveller. Professor liriinnow has himself corrected these figures in a list on p. The badly-weathered state of the columns makes the alternative of a false reading probable But, finally, we must remember that in mountainous countries the Romans appear Wall at DHlB7v]sr.

Onr Roman Highways, by Forbes and Burmester, p. This may 1 e a case in point. The descent on a much hotter day had occupied us 1 hour 15 minutes, and our mules 1 hour 4. Baedeker gives 1 hour 30 minutes for the descent ; Briinnow 1 hour 7 minutes. Burckhardt's Akeb el-Debs by the top of the descent. Since coming home I find that Briinnow also received the name 'Akraba for the ruins nearer the road, and el-'Ara'ir for others half-an-hour to the east.

It will be remembered that the name 'Akraba, " scorpion," has been found in other parts of the Arabian East near steep, zig-zag ascents. I did not see the milestone, mentioned by Bliss, nor see nor hear of the Kesiir el-Besheir reported by Burckhardt p. On the way south we had made a hasty examination of the ruins, which avc very extensive ; but except for some older-looking walls, traces of which appear in the photograph, they are apparently all Byzan- tine.

The masomy is mainly what one sees in other ruins in Moab : the thicker walls are faced with dressed stones, but the interior is rubble. Dhibrm is usually described as lying on two hills ; but there are really three, all to the west of the present road, and even to the east of this and across the Avady which lies there the ruins spread up to the neighbouring knolls.

At one period or another the town must have been as large as any in Moab : cf. As impressive as the extent of the ruins is the number of roads — four or fivfi in addition to the trunk road — which converge upon them across the rich land. The three hills on which the main city and its defences stood are related as in the accompanying sketch p.

The principal is thr. On the northern slope are the two lines of ancient wall given in the jDhotograph, one above the other, the upper 5 feet thick. On the east of the sonth hill, marked II, are also traces of a wall. Prol ably therefore, the ancient city comprised all three hills along with the col connecting them ; but as I have said, it also spread eastward over the road and the shallow wady beside it to the slopes beyond, on which are many scattered ruins.

The paved road is here 6 paces broad. As one looks Ijack, its course lies very clear through the Avheat fields ; clear because, although overgrown, it bears only grass, the fellahin being unable to plough it. Although the ground is practically level, the road does not show, as Eoman I'oads are fabled to do, a straight line, but oscillates.

A few hundred yards — 7 minutes — to the north of the ruin just mentioned is a fragment of a Roman milestone of the usual shape : a round column with rectangular base. There is nothing legible upon it. It may be one of the two fragments which Father Durand noticed "on approaching Wady Waleh" from the south Bev. From here we descended from the plateau by the wady running- north into the Wady AA'aleh. On this descent the Roman road presents some interesting features.

It keeps on the east of the wady, carefully following the contours, and is on better gradients than the modern road, which holds to the west of it, and occasionally coincides with the dvy torrent l ed. The pavement lies Imck 2 or 3 inches from the edge of the supporting wall and slightly tilted towards the edge. The interstices Avere filled with earth ; I found no mortar here. We slowly followed the Roman road, observing that where the rock which it passes over is flat no pavement was laid down, and that where a little earth was packed in the paving stones riding was easy ; and there was even a Iteautiful surface for wheels.

But where this packing was alisent, the road must have been difficult for horses, and horrible for wheels. Probably the Romans packed earth everywhere that it would lie. Briinnow reports p. We reached the Wrdeh stream at The journey from here to Dhiban in the opposite direction had taken us 1 hour 33 minutes ; Briinnow, 1 hour 40 minutes.

The Waleh stream is not so large as the Mojil. Just below the ford the water escapes over the hard, flat limestone strata by channels it has worn, and falls in cascades of 3 or 4 feet. The lower courses of four piers on the south side and two on the north, just above the cascades, are all that remain of the Roman bridge : necessary in winter when the M'aters are up. Above the piers, on the south side, is a curious block of masonry, with aqueduct along the top, leading to a vertical shaft, the sides of which, like those of the aqueduct, are cemented, the whole apparently designed to turn a waterwheel.

There is another similar construction in the mouth of the Wady el-'Asideh, an aqueduct ending in a small scpuire tower, with a central circular shaft 6 feet 6 inches in diameter, from which there is no sign of an issue.

We walked up the Wady el-'Asideh or Abu Sidr , and found remains of liuildings very old and rough. The Roman road appears, on leaving the south end of the bridge, to follow the Wady el-'Asideh for some distance ; then we lost it. The meaning of the root is "to be sad," but one derivative means " desert," and another is applied according to Freytag to water running out into the desert. Temperatures in Wady Wfdeh on April 20th, 9.

April 21st, 6 a. April 25th, 4. April 26th, 7 a. The wady, lying higher than the Wady Mdjib, was thus considerably cooler. TUK I! Here is a mill, to which some Bedawin women were bringing grain. The miller gets one-twelfth of what he grinds. A wady close hy bears the name, according to Khalil, of Sheikh Iskander. Briinnow fonnd the same name further up the stream to the east.

Near it the roughly-dressed stones of the road have been used to prop a Turkish telegraph post. Thence still due north up the succeeding ridge to the ruin of a small tower, 8. They have been described fully by Mr. We took 1 9 minutes from the previous milestone with the uncertain numeral XII or XIII, according to Briinnow, wdio supposes that the road between accomplished a long detour in order to avoid the w-adies. So long a detour is hardly probable, and therefore the reading XII on the milestone in cjuestion is the more likely.

Other stones of the group XI bear the names of Galerius and Constantine. From this the view is very extensive, and Khalil pointed out to me a number of wadies which are not marked on any map, and named them. Later we went carefully over their names. West of the Roman road we were following, five wadies run from north'to south.

At the head of this wady stands the ruin of the town 'Attarus, and lower down it that of Kuriat. Other place names indicated to me from this viewpoint : to the south of Wady el-Waleh two ruins, Umm 'Eshjireh i". About 9 we left our viewpoint and held by the road along the upper reach of the Tala'at el-Mansaf. Just to the south of Libb the road is joined by a track coming in from the north-west, probably from INIa'in.

We spent half-an-hour rambling over the ruins of Libb. There are many vaulted buildings, numerous deep cisterns, several caves, a few squared lintels, and a carven trough. A rectangular building on the summit is without distinction, and we saw no other signs of public architecture — churches and the like, such as one sees at Machaerus and in other ruins.

With this agrees the fact that the name of the town is not discoverable in ancient maps or records. Here at Our time for riding the distance to this stone from the Xth was 35 minutes. Briinnow, wrongly I think, styles it " probably " the VHth from Madeba. Immediately thereafter we came on a ruined Kerakon, as the Arabs call it, " barrack," or military post on the edge of the shallow Wady.

Germer Durand, p. On the left is another equally shallow depression, at the head of which Mfideba is conspicuous on its Tell. Across it are the rolling limestone hills north-north-east of Ma'in. Stewart Macalistee, M. Classified Catalogue of Names Collected in Nablus. The persons from whom these names were collected were mostly Muslim fellahln. Some, however, are Christians, and names found exclusively among Christians are denoted by t prefixed. Words in square brackets are supplied to complete the sense implied by certain names.

Class D : Descriptive Names. Bodily Qualities. Mental Qualities. Unclassifiable Descriptive Words. Parts of the Body. Animals and Parts of Animals. Plants and Parts of Plants. Names Derived from Food. Such a person is credited with being " cleverer than the devil. Names Derived from Money. Names Derived from Clothing, Weapons, and Ornaments.

Miscellaneous Unclassifiable Words. Date of Birtli. Expressive of Primogeniture or other Circumstances of the like Nature. Descrijition of the Child as a Gift of God. Good Wishes to the Child, or Pleasure at the Birth. Names Expressive of Relationshii?. Names of Jews and Jewesses in Damascus.

Class A : Tkeophorous Names. A boy who is called Hudr is addressed indifferently by that name or Elias, and vice versa. Unclassitiable Descriptive Words. Class F: Titles, Trades, and Occupations. Leonardo , "Lion- hearted " ; Nimfirah, " Leojiard or Tiger. It is noteworthy that comparatively few of the names in the above list are genuinely Hebrew, most of them being Asiatic, Spanish, or what- ever the modern tongue of the bearer may be.

We could easily add many names from other sources to each of the sections into which the above lists have been classified. We thought it better, howevei", to confine ourselves to a complete analysis of the sources at our disposal, as these were sufficiently extensive to illustrate all the common types, and the relative frequency of the several classes.

Since Robinson's work on Palestine, the traditions relating to sites have received comparatively little attention at the hands of scholars, who have too often considered them to be merely the sayings of later monks. This was the case whilst investigating the old question of the birthplace of St. John the Baptist, and I heg, accordingly, to present my evidence in the following pages. For about years Juttah, a village a few hours south of Hebron, has been considered to be the native town of John the Baptist, whereas tradition has placed it at 'Ain Karim, a village on1e and a half hours west of Jerusalem, where there is a Convent St.

John and a remarkable ruin called Mar Zacharias. AVhich is the true site? Zacharias, the father of John, was a priest of the order of Abijah Luke i, 5. In the Temple of Jerusalem the birth of a son was announced to him, and the child was born in the priest's home. In what place was his home 1 Now, in Luke i, 39, it is said : " And Mary arose in these days, and went into the hill country with haste into a city of Judah, and entered into the house of Zacharias and saluted Elizabeth.

The conjecture of Beland was adopted by many others. Even Robinson, the hero of later geographical study, says, in his Palestine iii, p. But this view is untenable for several reasons : — 1. The name does not fully agree. The dentals in Juttah and Judah could scarcely be confused. Stark Palestine and Syria, Berlin, , p.

After the Captivity of the Jews, Juttah was no longer a priestly city, but Idumsean. After the Captivity, we leai-n that the returned Jews settled not only in Jerusalem, but also in their former cities as far as they were not already inhabited by Idumpeans. From Neh.

In Neh. Those priests who were not able to settle in their former cities had to find other places, and doubtless selected sites nearer to Jerusalem, where there were no Idumpeans. They would naturally prefer to live amongst their own people than with strangers, and so the ancestors of Zacharias might very well have settled in 'Ain Karim with the consent of the leaders in Jerusalem.

That the greater part of the priests were settled near Jerusalem we perceive from Neh. But the question may be asked, why not at some other city — for instance, at Hebron 1 4. Now Jerusalem is called, in 2 Chi-on. But this cannot be, for here it is only said that Amaziah was buried in that part of Jerusalem situated in the territoiy of Judah.

Priests had certainly not lived near tombs. Further, as Bethlehem so often bears the additional name Judah Ruth i, 1, 2, Judges xvii, 7, 9, xix, 1, 2, and 1 Samuel xvii, 12 , so Bethlehem might be meant. But Bethlehem was not a city of priests, and hence cannot be considered. Others, again, have thought of Hebron, which had been originally a priestly city, and remained so after the Captivity.

So Sepp, who, however, has no valid reasons to support his view. John, or Zacharias, or Elizabeth. When the Jews had become more powerful, Hyrcaniis conquered the whole land of Idumsea, and forced them either to be circumcised or to leave the counti'y. But where could they go 1 So they yielded to become outwardly Jews, but inwardly they were their enemies!

The Roman governor Gobinus confirmed Hyrcanus in his rule, and the country became divided in five parts, each with a high court. But Idumsea was ruled sepaiately, and Herod the Great , by birth half an Idumeean, when king of the Jews, made his brother-in-law, Kostobarus, a real Idumsean, ruler of the whole of Idumaja, inchicling Gaza.

As the Idumneans hated the Jews, Jewish priests would scarcely find a tolerable life in Idumsea, and one may conclude that Hebron would be the last place for Jewish priests to reside in, much less Juttah, and so Zacharias, not only a priest, but a pious Jew, like his wife, would probably live nearer to Jerusalem. So imi3ortant a place as the home of St. But we find no tradition either in Hebron or in Juttah, but only at 'Ain Karim.

Indeed, neither the present condition of Juttah nor tradition before Reland , nor even the name nor its history bears witness to its having been the birthplace of John the Baptist, and in these circumstances it remains to consider the arguments in favour of locating it at 'Ain Karim. According to tradition 'Ain Kai'im, a village one and a-half hours' walk west of Jerusalem, was the home of Zacharias and Elizabeth.

It is fully described in the Memoirs, and I would only add the following remarks : — 1 Luke, i, , and i, It is not mentioned in onr Bibles among the cities conquered by Joshua Josh, xv, , but it appears in the Septuagint with eight other cities — all of them in this district. But this 'Ain was apparently situated in the south of the country, and is always connected with Rimmon, so that this supposition cannot be correct.

We may feel sure that 'Ain Karim became repopulated by Jews and probably by priests, as they were obliged to look for new places on account of the Idum. There was a natural preference for Jewish territory near to Jerusalem, where there were no Edomites. There is near to the present village 'Ain Karim a church and convent, dating back before Crusading times, and about 10 minutes ilistance on the hillside beyond the ravine and its copious spring is a remarkable ruin, bearing the name Mar Zaeharias, the country house of this priest, as tradition tells ns, where Mary saluted Elizabeth, and where the latter hid herself with her son from the soldiers of Herod when they were sent to kill the children.

Having, therefore, two clues I am of opinion that the tradition is correct, for if at any later time the site was created on the strength of later theories, only one place would have been established as the " house of Zaeharias " mentioned by the Gospel,! The Abbot Daniel A. The place, he says, is surrounded by a wall, and the chief building was 24 metres long and 15 wide ; the walls are very thick, and some vaultings and arches are very strong, so that they might have stood more than 1, years.

The place is now cleared of debris, the lower church has been, restored, and a bell tower and a convent built over it. As with so many churches in this country the l»uilding of this also was ascribed to Helena. In 'Ain Karim Ave have, therefore, old remains just as one is led to expect, and in addition to this the names of St.

John and Zacharias, together with the tradition, have been carefully preserved. It is a ruined and desolated city on the top of a hill, and is called Bet Iskaria, which may mean House of Zacharias ; it is mentioned in 1 JNIacc. I have visited the place and found no feature or name which one would expect to find had it really been the true site of John the Baptist's home. In this country it often happens that several villages Ijear the same name. From Luke i, 39, we learn that the house of Zacharias was in the " hill country," hence some special district is meant.

In Jer. Josephus in Bell. Pliny, a few years later, gives 10 toparchies, but wdthout Idumtea, Comparing the two lists we find that the latter gives Orine, for which Josei3hus has Engedi, but Engedi being an isolated place on the shore of the Dead Sea, could never have been a toparchy, and must have been included in Herodion.

It seems to me, therefore, that Josephus, knowing that Engedi had celebrated vineyards and an 'Ain, or spring, and 'Ain Karim, meaning the "vineyard spring," made some error, and wrote down 'Ain-gedi Engedi instead of 'Ain Karim. To this view I was brought when reading the pilgrimage of the Russian Al bot Daniel a. He states that a church ' See Memoir, p.

The place of this event was to be seen in the rock in his day. A small church is Ituilt there, and a spring of flowing water opens out hard by. The mountain lies west of Jerusalem, high, and covered with forests, and surrounded by numerous valleys, and its name, he observes, is called Orine, i. Even the Crusaders kept up the custom, and called this district the " hill country," viz. This concurrence of tradition regarding St. John and the home of Zacharias places its accuracy almost beyond all doubt.

The tradition placing the birthplace of John the Baptist at 'Ain Karim goes back to the early Christian time without interrup- tion. Eusebius and Jerome are, however, silent on this matter. Sepp I, p. Of Abbot Daniel I have already spoken. Eugesippus a.

Theodorich A. John, in the wood or forest where Zacharias and Elizabeth the parents of John lived. From Brocardus in to Maundeville in the place is mentioned by several writers. Even the modern Eussian name appears to me to preserve the ancient designation Orine.

The desert of St. About half an hour west of 'Ain Karim, on the southern side of the large valley Surar, opjiosite the village Sataf, is a cave in a rocky cliff, partly artificial, and below it a little spring called Habis. In the N'ame Lists p. Tradition makes it to be the place where John was living, meditating, and preaching in the desert.

Above the cliff are the ruins of some buildings and of a little church. This indicates that the tradition is an old one. But people rightly ask, How can this be the -sWlderness in which St. John preached and baptised, as the site is no wilderness, but a very green and well- cultivated place? Sepp, for example, even calls the building a temple, and cannot imagine that pious Christians would so put aside all common sense as to locate the Avilderness of the preacher here.

But in Luke i, 80 we read : " And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his shewing unto Israel. It is, therefore, by no means improbable that he came here, living for days in the wood and in the cave. In the Bible the word " desert " does not always mean a wilderness in the full sense of the word. Thus, according to Matt, xiv, 13, 15, Mark vi, In early days men filled with the spirit of reverence went for longer or shorter periods into a wilderness.

Josephus says in his biography ii, 1 that he being a son of a priest like John had a great desire for learning, and studied the three sects of the Jews Pharisees, Saducees, and Essenes. Having heard of an eminent man living in the wilderness, clothed with a Coat made of the bark of trees, and eating plants growing in the desert, and bathing in cold water, he went to him as his pupil, in order to study at his feet.

So he was with him three years, and at the age of nineteen he went back to Jerusalem. It is not impossible that many men followed the example of John and Josephus from time to time. We do not know John's age when he went into the wilderness, but we may with good reason suggest he was over twenty. He went, apparently, to the wilderness of Judah Joshua xv, 61, Judges i, 16 , the western steep descent to the Dead Sea, wath its numerous rocky and dry gorges and valleys.

Those who advocate the view that Juttah was his birthplace think of that part of the wilderness east of Juttah ; but as John was not only preaching, but also baptising, and hence was called "John the Baptist," he must have selected a part of the wilderness where there Avas water. Even when Jesus was led by the Spirit into the wilderness, tradition locates it in the same region.

How long John stayed here we do not know, but it may have been several years. He went then to the other side of the Jordan, which was not under the jurisdiction of the Sanhedrin, but under King Herod Archelaus, who " liked him and heard him gladly " Mark vi, From the above paragraphs it will, I think, be clear that neither Jerusalem, nor Bethlehem, nor Hebron can be the city of Juclah in which John the Baptist was born ; moreover it cannot be Juttah, since neither its name nor its history lend any support.

On the other hand, in 'Ain Karim we have the support of the name, the tradition, the history, and the locality, viz. Hence in these circumstances there can be little question that the required site can only be 'Ain Karim. This site, which seems to have given great difficulty to the later Hebrews and to the Greek translators, is important in connection with the question of the stoj page of the Jordan on the occasion of the first entry of the Hebrews, under Joshua, into Western Palestine.

This, as has been before noticed in the Quarfcdy Stakment of the Palestine Exploration Fund, was also the place where an actual obstruction of the river is stated by an Arab writer to have occin-red in the thirteenth century A. Zaretan, therefore, is to be sought in this vicinity. Whether the city Adam was the same as Admah Gen.

Zartanah 1 Kings iv, 12 seems to be the same place as Zaretan LXX reads Sfro-«0« ' , and is noticed in connection with one of Solomon's provinces, roughly coinciding with the tribal lot of Issachar. This again places Zarthan just where Zaretan is to be sought. The LXX reads 'Eeip'i in this passage. J The cities of the plain Ciccar are usually sought near the Dead Sea.

Moreover, we have an ancient Salein in the liills immediately to tlie west, and Salem seems to have been near Sodom Gen. The only objection to putting the cities of the plain so far north seems to be found in Gen. On average, dwarves stand about a foot shorter than humans, and tend to be stockier than even the burliest halforcs. They weigh about pounds more than they appear due to their strong skeletons and tightly packed musculature. Most dwarves wear their hair long, and male dwarves pride themselves on the length and condition of their beards.

Traditionalists festoon their beards with elaborate braids, small battle trophies, or beads commemorating important events in their lives. Dwarven dress, as with all physical objects dwarves craft, favors function over form, but is never plain. Decorations serve practical purposes, such as fasteners, padding, reinforcements of seams, or the integration of pockets and tool-holding loops.

The clothing of wealthy dwarves and those whose toils require a minimum of demanding physical labors such as gemcutters and jewelry crafters stretch the def inition of functionality with some of their clothing, but even their fanciest outf its bear numerous pockets, loops, and attachment points—frequently made of gold, silver, or other soft but beautiful metals. While adventuring dwarves usually seem reserved and conservative to members of other races, they are seen at home as impetuous youths or shirking wastrels.

Dwarves tend to view other races as soft, weak, or even degenerate. Elves, for example, are weaklings who abandoned the world and allowed orcish dominion during the Age of Darkness, and half-orcs—the progeny of a race dwarves warred with for millennia before humans started counting years—are savage curs who need seeing to.

No one holds a grudge like a dwarf. Even the most obstinate dwarf is capable of overcoming ancient prejudices to make exceptions for his battle-tested friends, though, and dwarves value friends higher even than the gems and gold that notoriously fuel their lust for adventure.

Exceptions exist: elves can also be named after ancestors of different genders or for famous elves whose character the parents want their offspring to emulate. Humans see elves as beautiful, carefree sometimes ruthless , graceful, and always stylish creatures with large eyes and pointed ears, who dwell in close harmony with nature.

Elves— proud, tall, slender, longlived, but fragile—possess an ancient, sophisticated culture and mastery over the arts and magic at least equaling the foremost humans. Elven society peaked thousands of years before the rise of humankind, and elves clashed constantly with humans as the latter clawed their way toward civilization.

Despite superior skill at arms and in magic, the elves could not prevail against the endless tides of savage human warriors. Never a fecund race, the outnumbered elves knew they must ultimately surrender the world to their barbaric cousins. On the eve of the Earthfall, most elves abandoned Golarion to its sad fate, departing through the gates to the mysterious haven of 8 Sovyrian, the legendary homeland of the elves.

Thousands of elves returned to Golarion from Sovyrian in the middle of the Age of Enthronement, causing great tumult throughout Avistan. These elves resettled many of their old holdings, taking up arms against human warlords who refused their ancient claims of sovereignty.

Unsure of the true nature and powers of these vicious drow and facing mounting losses in battle against them, the harried elves collapsed the tunnels below Celwynvian and abandoned the haunted capital.

The elves crossed Avistan in a great procession to the ancient elven kingdom of Kyonin, on the far shore of Lake Encarthan. A few elves journeyed elsewhere, traveling west along the island chains of Varisia to raise the Mordant Spire on the edge of the known world. The elves then became an ephemeral presence in Golarion, dwelling in secluded forest kingdoms or isolated island Elves are the Fair Ones, the Dancing Ones—some say the Laughing Ones or the Mocking Ones.

Save those they fall in love with, or whom they see as loving them. Honor guides them. Families of elves tentatively emerged from these strongholds to dwell more openly. Elves now thrive in many places they once lived, whether or not the current rulers of those lands accept their timelost sovereignty. Elves are slighter and taller than humans. They have long, pointed ears and eyes dominated by pupils so large as to f ill most of the eye.

Most elves keep to wild natural places, where over time they take on aspects of their environment. They live in harmony with local life cycles; knowing and using local plants as food, medicine, dyes, and aids in magic; and typically wear garments that blend with local f lora.

In cultured lands, elves bedeck themselves in the f inest clothing, always aware of the latest fashions. Elven style values aesthetics from the simple to the bewilderingly complex, favoring free-f lowing hair and unencumbered movement. Elven garments tend to be soft to the touch and of a single hue or subtly blended colors. Elves tend to avoid bright red, orange, and yellow shades in their clothing, hair dyes, and furnishings. The seldom-seen by races other than elves high elven nobility of Sovyrian are known for their unearthly grace of movement, and their raiment of otherworldly beauty.

Elves who grow up outside sheltered elf society do so among people who grow old and die in the time it takes a long-lived elf to simply reach maturity. Elves reared among elves, who have known only elf society, call such melancholy elves the Forlorn, and tend to look down upon them or mistrust them. The Forlorn make up a disproportionately large number of elves who consider themselves adventurers.

Most elves become intensely uncomfortable when in close contact with stone and lifeless things, and feel more at ease when surrounded by the growing world. Many city-dwelling elves introduce strong-scented living plants notably those useful as herbs and medicines and bowls of rainwater into their living quarters. Many elf beds—and almost all places where injured or sick elves go to sleep—are of moss-covered earth. Except for the drow, elves disdain sculpting, digging, or working with stone except for those gemstones that naturally form as crystals , and rarely work metals except silver.

As a result, they must trade with other races particularly the skilled dwarves to obtain metal tools and weapons or armor. Most prefer to pay well in order to have such things crafted to their specif ications. Many elves are superb artists, cartographers, scribes, herbalists, spice-traders, seamstresses, perfumers, and cosmeticians. Elven artisans make their livelihoods with such skills when dwelling among other races.

Elves might appear carefree to others, and they do love to laugh, play pranks, try things on a whim, and upon occasion recklessly disregard dangers or consequences. It is a mistake, however, to view elves as thoughtless or uncaring. Most elves make friends easily, value them highly but see it as wrong to try to lecture, guide, or steer their lives, decisions, and deeds , and both love and indulge in lust tenderly, but apart from love with elves and non-elves.

Elves honor almost any god of Golarion, but the majority of elves worship Calistria or Desna, with smaller numbers venerating Nethys and lesser cultural heroes. Elves see gods as their guides and inspirations in life, with swift and simple daily devotions being part of life but thought mattering more than petty details. Oaths sworn by a deity are binding, and not to be broken.

Even if achieving the oaths takes a lifetime, they are never to be forgotten or twisted. Female names reverse the male conventions, being simple and short, although many females claim their names are actually short for something. Gnome family names, which change every few generations, typically contain some Common words, as well as several syllables of gibberish. Traumatized by their exodus from the realm of fey, they suffer from an aff liction they call the Bleaching.

Every gnome needs new and exciting experiences on a regular basis or else she starts to lose color, substance, and awareness, while slowly passing into the afterlife. This need, paired with their unconventional ethics, has caused the race to be recognized as fickle and chaotic, but also as innovative, daring, and radically progressive. Once an ancient and immortal race of fey, the wily gnomes of present Golarion are transmuted and displaced. Some sages even suspect that the race f led its homeland solely to wash suspicion from its mischievous hands.

The shadowy First World was a place of wonders for the gnomes. Ageless life and never-ending pranks were sources of continuous delight. Uprooted from this ancestral home, the race never cured the spiritual wound the separation caused, resulting in an aff liction known as the Bleaching. Gnomes who exist in an unchanging environment see their colors pale and their sanity wither, while those with a knack for the new remain lively and vibrant.

I wonder if there is a hidden and grim meaning to this saying. Yesterday, my companion—a brawny gnome and savage warrior with purplish hair—strangled a highway robber with his knobby hands. Like most of his race, he is always a little skittish, but after the battle he was extremely excited and cheerful. Had it not been for the retention of their cleverness and nonlinear genius throughout this attempt at frenetic exploration, the gnomes would have been destroyed in the era of their diaspora.

Most who survived did so by forming enclaves, where gnomes uncharacteristically banded together for mutual protection. Sages tell that some embraced the maddening touch of the Bleaching and used it to warp their minds and bodies into dangerous forms capable of defending themselves. The descendents of these curmudgeonly misanthropes are called Lonely Ones by the gnomes, while humanity refers to them as spriggans.

Today, gnomes are most common in the hills and forests of Avistan, where they built their f irst enclaves and managed to f ind some measure of peaceful coexistence with the natives. The largest of the gnome cities is Brastlewark, the legendary capital of the Gnome King within the borders of Cheliax, most lawful and stable of all gnomish settlements. Other important settlements include the elusive Shay Citadels of Irrere near Holgrim, the welcoming and boisterous community of Thom in the River Kingdoms, as well as Katapesh in Katapesh and Quantium in Nex.

Additionally, gnomes occupied important positions in the courts of Ancient Osirian pharaohs, and earlier editions of the Pathfinder Chronicles contain hints of a debased spriggan society inhabiting a monolithic stone city in the Mwangi Expanse. Beyond the enclaves, many gnomes constantly roam the land in search for new borders, physical and mental, to explore. At about 3 feet in height, gnomes are slighter and taller than half lings.

Their ears are humanlike, but their highly mutable facial muscles allow for disturbing grins and their oversized eyes emphasize their often disproportionate expressions of emotion. Besides collecting stories and friends, they favor mechanical gadgets, riddles, f lamboyant outf its, nicknames, perfumes, and other complex and distinct items and mannerisms. Sometimes these affectations turn into an obsession with weird and useless items like rusty blades, spoons, knots, and other hodgepodge.

Throughout their lives, most gnomes have many intimate relationships, but they rarely engage in long-lasting ties. Lifetime bonding or marriage is extremely rare. Usually, a gnome family is loosely organized if organized at all and the vigorous children are taught the ways of life by the community until they are grown enough to learn from their own experiences. Unsurprisingly, the gnome language is a motley conglomeration of words from other languages.

Conveying 1 The Bleaching Despite generations of visionary gnomish research, the exact nature of the dire affliction known as the Bleaching remains a mystery. The Bleaching manifests itself as a blanching of skin, hair, and eye color during early adulthood. From there on, the complexion of the gnomish body is tied to the experiences she alights upon.

In contrast, a lack of excitement causes a fading of color and is accompanied by depression and the dulling of curiosity, heralding the beginning of a vicious spiral that leads to insanity and death. Instead, every year a gnome lives without experiencing new wonders takes a toll on her physiology, advancing her one age category. While many gnomes succumb to the horrific effects of the Bleaching in a long and drawn out process after they cease to excite their senses, some are able to exist in its emotional void.

Their skin, hair, and eyes seem either colorless or in moderate earthly tones, and their demeanors are calm and dreamy. A bleachling can use her speak with animals spell-like ability without restriction to burrowing mammals and her favored class changes to druid. In addition, a bleachling is at least middle age and is immune to further effects of the Bleaching—and therefore aging in general.

Immediately, they took sounds and words they fancied and assigned random meaning to them to forge a language of their own. The result might be the most irritating language to learn, and someone overhearing a conversation in Gnome is likely addled by the strange use of familiar words. Since the Bleaching remains the only natural cause of death among gnomes, religion and the worship of deities is explored in great detail under its aspect. If it had not been for the aff liction, the descendants of fey might not have taken up the mantle of worship at all, but as it stands, gnomes maintain an exuberant interest in faith often bordering on zealotry.

As with almost everything else, pious gnomes do not quite know when to quit. Many have also settled in the great city of Absalom. Shelyn, Calistria, Cayden Cailean, Desna, Sarenrae, Nethys, Irori, Lamashtu, ZonKuthon Names: Half-elven names can be drawn from the entire breadth of their human or elven cultural history and background, or half-elves may choose names for themselves. Sometimes these names are simple, almost as if meant to fade from memory, but many half-elves choose more embellished, musical names with an elvish inflection.

Outwardly beautiful but inwardly fragile, half-elves strive to master themselves and f ind within their hearts the strength to command their destiny. Of all the common races, elves and humans have the longest bond. In ancient times, the elves warred against their feral human cousins, eventually abandoning the world to human brutality on the eve of Earthfall.

Many elves remained in the isolated parts of the world, and as humans developed society, art, and magic, the elves watched from the shadows. In time, they reached out in friendship to the developed humans, and old enemies became friends—even lovers. It is not diff icult to imagine why elves and humans breed together. To a human, an elf represents an unattainable beauty. Elves—with their height, slim f igures, wisdom, and grace—are often seen as perfect humans, creating 12 an attraction many humans f ind impossible to resist.

To elves, humans represent freedom, brashness, and excitement. While the most staid isolationist elves decry these as weaknesses of the human spirit, other elves f ind the traits irresistible. When elves and humans breed, halfelves are the inevitable result.

The term half-elf is deceptive, for only a fraction of creatures so labeled come from the offspring of a human and elf parent. Others are many generations removed from the original coupling, yet exhibit traits of one race or the other that ensure they never quite f it in either.

Half-elves generally look like attractive humans with slightly pointed ears. They stand about a half-head taller than humans and rarely put on unseemly weight no matter what they feed themselves. Those with stronger elven traits are more likely to be viewed as outsiders by humans, who nonetheless remain strangely fascinated by them. Svelte, supple, clever, and always so friendly and eager to please. Half-elven skin tones usually take on the hue of the human parent.

The physical beauty of half-elves, however, masks a complex and conf licted internal psychology, as the human and elven elements of their psyche do not combine harmoniously. The dilated temporal perspective of their elven lineage leads to languorous predilections at war with their humanistic verve, adaptability, and precocious impulsivity.

This combination of the closed mind of the elves and the open mind of humans places half-elves in a delicate and often brittle mental dynamic. This leads many unfortunate half-elves into depression and even madness, but their unique psychic structure also enables them to manifest psionic powers far more commonly than any other race especially those whose elvish ancestors sojourned on the Green World of Castrovel.

Most common are psionic wilders, whose psychic capabilities awaken naturally and spontaneously, but half-elves have also been leaders in creating psionic research enclaves and even training academies for other psionic classes, especially in the far-off lands of Vudra. Half-elves have no ancestral homeland and seldom gather in groups composed explicitly of their race.

Instead, they usually try to f it within either human or elf society. They generally thrive in human communities, where they frequently become artists, bards, or entertainers. Despite this warm welcome, many half-elves avoid mixing with their human cousins, for foremost among the racial gifts granted to them by their elven progenitors is a long natural life. Half-elves often survive years or more, and must watch as three or more generations of their human friends wither and die before their eyes.

The older a half-elf grows, the more likely he is to be overcome by melancholy and nostalgia, speaking wistfully of lost friends from simpler times. Many half-elves avoid this sad fate by seeking succor in full-elven communities, where they are the short-lived ones. Half-elves, however, struggle not just with seeking acceptance from others, whether of human or elven blood or from other races , but also with understanding themselves.

Half-elves are often social chameleons, adapting their habits of mind and behavior to the most dominant inf luences around them, either the prevalent culture or even a single charismatic individual. While they are masterful at ingratiating themselves with others on a superf icial level, they are able to quiet their inner turmoil merely by aping the styles of others.

It is diff icult for halfelves to transcend this identity confusion and establish complete and fulf illing identities and destinies all their 1 Crystals Half-elves have always had an affinity for crystals and faceted gemstones, seeing in them a beautiful and poetic reflection of their own multifaceted character and identity, one that is easily obscured or missed until careful work reveals it. Beyond simply their aesthetic appreciation for crystals, some half-elves seem to show an almost supernatural connection, being able to induce minor prestidigitation-like effects in crystals they touch, causing the crystals to glow or change color or even dance about in the air.

It was while researching this strange resonance that a pair of psionically endowed half-elves, Samelu Sonshima of Vudra and Alysande Morinel of Taldor, awakened the first psicrystals. Lacking a culture of their own, half-elves adopt the dress, affectations, and mannerisms of the societies in which they f ind themselves. They generally fall into one of two groups: those who wish to f it in and those who wish to stand out.

Those of the former group stay within the mainstream fashion trends of their adopted culture, attempting to blend in with their peers by donning the kinds of clothes most other people of their social standing wear. These halfelves sometimes obsess over what others around them wear, say, and do to such an unhealthy level that they nearly drive themselves mad in an attempt to f it in.

Despite all their best efforts, though, they rarely do. Their opposites care little for current trends and fads, and in some cases those who wish to stand out and be seen create the trends their more herd-following brethren later adopt. Indeed, in many decadent societies that concern themselves with high fashion, such as Cheliax, Qadira, or Taldor, halfelves are often among the most admired or reviled creators of new trends, fads, and memes. Half-elves also lead innovation in functional textile industries, constantly developing new techniques in tailoring and seamstressing.

They also work to create better textile blends to serve a variety of purposes both functional and fashionable. Adventuring half-elves tend to be well traveled, with extensive networks of contacts picked up during their long lives among both humans and elves. Rather than tending toward a particular class or role within a party, half-elves are most often jacks-of-all-trades, with wide varieties of skills and abilities. More often, their names are harsh and unlovely, echoing the orcish tongue of their forebears.

Nicknames, often insulting, are common among half-orcs. While many orc tribes value the weaker half-breeds for their natural cunning, and in fact conduct raids into human lands specifically to breed more intelligent leaders, humans and most other races see half-orcs as unfortunate and unwanted progeny born of violence or perversion, a repulsive mix of two lines that should not cross. Their inner conf licts make half-orcs prone to violence and loneliness, with ferocious tempers and burning desires to survive—traits which serve them well as guards, gladiators, or adventurers.

Half-orcs have existed in Golarion since the first battles between orcs and humans in the dying days of the Age of Darkness, when the Quest for Sky of the ancient dwarves pushed the brutal orcs from their subterranean homes to the surface world.

In that moment, defeat erupted into victory as the orcs easily subjugated the fearful, sickly humans of the benighted world. The Hold of Belkzen takes its name from the greatest of orcish heroes, and its oftsquabbling warbands and tribal armies represent the largest open gathering of orcs and half-orcs on Avistan, locked in endless raiding with Lastwall and Varisia.

From Cheliax in the south to the Hold of the Mammoth Lords in the north, the bloody promise of orcish vengeance and slaughter is ever-present, and wherever orcs march hand-in-hand with conf lict, half-orcs can be found. Farther from these strongholds, in the cosmopolitan cities of the Inner Sea and Garund, such orcish terror is of little concern, and half-orcs often enjoy lives relatively free from bigotry and suspicion. Many have settled in Absalom, forming a powerful faction within the church of Norgorber, as well as in the open-minded cities of Nex, where they seek peace and asylum.

I only wish that was a jest. Still, there is no denying their usefulness in a fight. All those muscles, including the ones between their notched, pointed ears, certainly have their uses. But this one is a puzzle, and no mistake. Is he quoting philosophy? The most notorious is the Pirate Queen Imesah, who emblazons the yellow sails of her halfdozen galleys with her black ensign of elephant tusks crossed beneath a crowned skull. Half-orcs often find it difficult to shed their savage natures and adapt to the world of humans.

Impatient, impulsive, greedy, prone to violence when frustrated, and often none too bright, half-orcs nevertheless embody the full range of human emotion and imagination. They tend to feel or at least express their emotions far more severely than their human half cousins, crying loudly when sad or lonely and laughing boisterously when happy or amused. Those half-orcs who dwell in human societies often voice their moods at the top of their lungs, making it easy to tell just how a half-orc feels at any given moment.

Across the many nations in which they dwell, half-orcs venerate all the common chaotic deities, but most who practice even intermittent worship of a god tend to bend knees to Gorum, Our Lord in Iron. Many half-orcs assume he is one of them and that he remains ever hidden in iron to keep that truth from the weak humans who worship him.

This belief continues to spread thanks to the teachings of the orcish warlord-turned-proselytizer named Naellk. A decade ago, Naellk beheld an icon of the Lord in Iron carried into battle by war-priests of Gorum. Naellk saw himself ref lected in the spike-armored warrior with burning red eyes, and in that moment had an epiphany. Born in the cosmic instance when primal orc and ancient human first mingled their blood in the dust of the battlefield, Gorum was no human god at all.

Gorum, the Lord in Iron, was the first and perfect half-orc, no dull-witted slave or hideous outcast, but a devious, fierce, and proud warrior from birth. Enraptured, Naellk called upon Gorum for victory and his army shattered the enemy forces arrayed against him. While those who chose to embrace the savage side of their heritage and live among the orcs were already more predisposed toward leadership than their full-blood relations, given their greater ability to plan ahead and utilize advanced tactics in battle, their perceived value has continued to grow, giving rise to new organizations and increasing the value 1 Markings Throughout a long history of enslavement and abuse at the hands of other races, half-orcs have been branded, tattooed, and otherwise disfigured by their masters to mark their outcast status.

In some areas, half-orcs have taken what were once their marks of shame and turned them into fantastic works of art of incredible detail and intricacy. These are embellished with elaborate tattoos featuring exotic creatures fierce and cunning, proverbs or names in ancient Orc runes, or the flanged sword and spiked helm of Gorum. Many tattoos are infused with gamal, a rare fungal essence that allows the tattoos to be seen in vivid color even with darkvision.

Half-orc tattoo artists are some of the most skilled and creative in Golarion and are much sought after, especially in Absalom and the Shackles. In the savage Hold of Belkzen, for example, half-orcs have f locked to the banner of the most famous of their kind, Hundux Half-Man of the Murdered Child. Though half-orcs are still grudgingly welcomed in Urgir for the time being, the tempers of orcs are quick to ignite, and before long Belkzen may f ind itself embroiled in a full-scale race war.

Of the other chaotic deities, Rovagug remains popular among half-orcs who wish to bring down human civilization and create an anarchic equality for all races—or those who simply revel in destruction. Female half-orcs frequently venerate Lamashtu, and the Mother of Monsters gains many converts from pregnant half-orcs. Half-orcs who feel themselves unfairly wronged sometimes pray to Calistria, goddess of revenge, in the hopes of finding succor in her blessings.

Undoubtedly, the Savored Sting would prove more popular among half-orcs if their limited intelligence did not tend to negate her aspect as the trickster goddess. Nonevil half-orcs tend to venerate Cayden Cailean, embracing his aspects of bravery and freedom. Among the nonchaotic deities, Norgorber for his aspects of greed and murder and Pharasma in her death goddess role occasionally attract half-orcs.

Their origins date back to the beginning of humanity. From the very start, they seem to have always walked alongside mankind, living in human cities, adopting human customs, seeing to the common needs of humans as cooks, entertainers, and menials. Half lings themselves take nothing for granted, and always keep their eyes open for the next opportunity to survive and even thrive.

This impulse often casts them as servants, with half lings attaching themselves to human families or institutions as a matter of symbiotic survival. In devil-tainted Cheliax, such servitude often comes in the form of slavery. Half ling slaves are less effective than humans but last longer, maintaining an unparalleled optimism and willingness to endure.

Despite their close involvement in many facets of human society, half lings have a tendency to be ignored and underestimated. Their ability to blend into the background, be it at a social gathering or into the comforting shadows of a dark alley, is unparalleled. They know when to bend with the wind, but when they have the chance to seize a grand pile of gold or fame they never let the opportunity pass by. Often blamed for putting themselves into danger, the small folk simply cannot resist the temptation of a new adventure, a daring heist, or the lure of the unknown.

Fortunately, their superior sense for danger allows them to survive these hazards and has granted them the reputation of being exceptionally lucky. It is no surprise that superstitions revolving around luck and fate have become common among half ling-harboring lands, and some cultures even assign mystical value to the small folk.

Rich Katapeshi traders hire half ling servants almost I was surprised to meet Illis Stoutholm on my way back from Highhelm, where my own entry had been denied. With a smirk on her face, she told me that she had been living with the dwarves for nearly a decade. After asking me to call her Illis, she added that she was looking forward to returning to her people back home in Vellumis. Being lucky is second nature to nearly all half lings, and while many demystify their successes with tales of superior ref lexes, unmatched skill, or inscrutable cunning, a few half lings stand out by an unmistakable lack of luck.

Instead, these individuals seem to bring mischief and bad luck to adversaries, and as a result they are avoided or even feared, especially among cultures heartily embracing superstitions. Half lings themselves believe this occurrence to be a rare blessing of Desna, and children bearing this gift are often ushered into the study of magical arts. Due to these attributes, and in contrast to their stable and altruistic communities, half ling society has a hidden, darker side as meaningful, developed, and important as the face maintained for the unassuming public.

Almost all half lings possess a strong opportunistic streak that is most prominent during their younger years. During this time, many stray from the rules of the community and involve themselves in the disdained affairs of thievery, subterfuge, adventuring, and vagabond life.

They often join guilds and try their hands at various professions or seek out other half ling settlements so as to mingle with different cultures. In truth, the half lings benef it from the techniques, approaches, and protection their symbiotic society offers them. In return, they use their positions, interspecies knowledge, and constantly growing inf luence to stabilize society, avert conf lict, and maintain a prosperous balance of power.

Despite their curiosity-driven wanderlust, half lings possess a strong sense of house and home that develops over the years. A half ling takes great pride in his domicile, often spending above his means to add to the common comforts of home life. Half lings usually adopt the religious beliefs of the societies with which they merge. Unsurprisingly, many half lings worship the gods of humankind, such as Abadar, Iomedae, and Shelyn. Despite their practical commitment to faith, it is very rare for half lings to become clerics, paladins, or similar devout servants of these deities.

More often, these rare, enlightened, individuals choose Desna, Erastil, or Sarenrae as their patrons. Rumors also tell of a disturbingly large cult venerating the treacherous aspect of Norgorber. The exact time of the festival is usually determined by a certain task the fledgling must perform. Its nature is generally specified years before the child has any hope of completing it, and might range from acquiring a certain amount of wealth to the preparation of a feast for the entire family.

Many apprentices try repeatedly before they are able to match the challenge through skill or adept cheating. After succeeding, the halfling is given a token to remember the accomplishment. This item often carries the additional promise of freedom from the community but usually bears little actual value. An ancient gold coin to start a collection, an ornamental dagger to sever the chains of comfort, a pair of boots to travel the world, or a dubious treasure map help to toss the curious youngling out into the world.

Due to their homogenous communities, many half lings ref ine and differentiate their social lives by joining groups and societies of interest that often serve as open and legal fronts to the infamous shadowguilds. Most of these organizations are intercultural and geared toward older participants, revolving around trade, art, or diplomacy. Despite these economic and peaceful trades, however, a newly founded elitist duelist league continues to quickly expand. The league teaches fast, dexterous f ighting styles with undeniable roots in the back alleys.

Its techniques possess a certain panache that turns even the most unassuming half ling into a bladewhirling dervish. This approach appeals to the younger generations, who desperately long for a f lirt with danger. Half lings stand just shorter than gnomes but make up for what they lack in stature and strength with bravery, optimism, and skill.

The bottoms of their feet are naturally covered in tough calluses and the tops often sport tufts of warming hair, allowing for barefoot travel. Most have almond skin and brown hair with hues that tend to darken closer to the Inner Sea.

Forever living in the shadows of their taller kith and kin, half lings dress in whatever styles suit the human culture in which they dwell. Half ling slaves tend to dress slightly better than their free cousins, especially in Cheliax, as their owners tend to use the half lings as status symbols. Emotionally, half lings embrace nonexclusive extremes. They are easygoing but excitable, prone to laziness but frenetic when roused. Ironically, their greatest strength is their perceived weakness—half lings can count on the advantage that they are continually underestimated, an edge they exploit mercilessly.

Since his death a century ago, some have turned to Iomedae or other common gods, but these are devotions of convenience rather than cultural choices. The death of the Last Azlanti renewed interest in the forgotten ancient deities of the original Azlanti culture, but only a few fragments of an often disturbing nature have thus far come to light.

Names: Today, Taldan. Azlanti names usually begin with vowels, and neither males nor females adopt surnames. An Azlanti must make his one name important enough to last in memory and history. The shattered remnants of its once-graceful architecture perch precariously atop the slivers of land that still remain of the island continent, vast mazes of crumbling rock that form a wall across the treacherous Arcadian Ocean.

Here and there along the Inner Sea, and infrequently inland far from modern cities, a ruin of some forgotten Azlanti outpost lies at the heart of a trackless forest or the edge of a forlorn coastal cliff. Today, there is no more Azlant. The god Aroden was the very last pure-blooded scion of that onceproud race, and with his recent demise the line is now extinct.

And yet the Azlanti live on in culture, spirit, and song, a lost race whose inf luence has not yet faded. Taldans and Chelaxians both proudly proclaim Azlanti blood as the foundation of their stock, with some falsely claiming to be pure descendants of the ancient empire.

These folk view their Azlanti origins as the source of traits like intelligence, grace, magical aptitude, and beauty, using the connection as a major point of distinction that sets them above other races. Genuine Azlanti jewelry commands high prices in the markets of the Inner Sea, and each new discovery can trigger new trends among the high society. The ancient Azlanti were a regal, beautiful folk with handsome features and an aloof demeanor.

Their skin ranged from olive to pale white, with uniformly dark hair approaching black. Today, humans still identify these traits as Azlanti, whether or not the connection is genuine. Only one physical characteristic—a deep purple color in the eyes—is seen today as absolute proof of strong Azlanti heritage. The blood of Old Azlant lives on not just in the sunlit kingdoms of regal Taldans and Chelaxians who cling to it in I once saw an Azlanti wizard at a carnival in Daggermark.

I lost three sailors to a rug merchant in Okeno whose Azlanti patterns beguiled the simple-minded into snares of ancient origin. The true Azlanti died out millennia ago, yet these men I have known keep their culture and tradition alive through the ages. And in this sense, the Azlanti will live forever. The subterranean remnants of timelost Azlanti colonies on Avistan and Garund retain only the base physical trappings of humanity, having long ago descended into animalistic cannibalism.

They remember only the barest scraps of their past glories, and many of their widespread, isolated communities have lost even the art of language. In certain cases, inbreeding resulted in terrible mutation. Such creatures are, essentially, monsters, and make for poor player characters. When the ancient Azlanti rebelled against the aboleth masters that raised them from barbarism and doomed their continentkingdom to extinction, countless thousands plunged into the turbid waters of the Arcadian Ocean.

Most drowned, but some few found succor with their undersea aboleth enemies. Caught somewhere between merfolk and the humans from whom they descended, the Low Azlanti emerge from the depths occasionally to serve the mysterious agenda of the aboleths, dwelling in a permanent fashion only in a poolladen embassy in the town of Escadar, off the Isle of Kortos. The Ancient Azlanti tongue has been lost for centuries, known to modern scholars only in its fragmentary written form. Certain Azlanti terms and elements of grammar survive as the foundation of the Taldane language, known across Avistan and Garund as Common.

Only the mysterious seafaring elves of the Mordant Spire speak Ancient Azlanti f luently, barking aristocratic orders to explorers investigating the ancient ruins they claim as their own. Much of what is known about the culture of Ancient Azlant is conjecture based upon artifacts or fragmentary historical records rescued from ruins more than 10, years old.

Modern humans claiming Azlanti descent often attempt to cloak themselves in the trappings of the fallen empire, thus attaining some measure of its greatness. Because the remnants of Old Azlanti art discovered to date often depict regal robes of crimson or deep green, modern Azlanti tend to garb themselves in finery of those hues.

Likewise, slavery is known to have existed in the lost empire, so modern Azlantis 1 The Legacy of Old Azlant The enigmatic gillmen are close enough to humans that they can pass as such for a time without fear of detection. Physically, they resemble their ancient cousins, with the characteristic expressive brow, pale skin, and dark hair. They almost always have bright purple eyes, and three slim gills mark each side of their necks, near the shoulder.

The gills allow the Low Azlanti to breathe underwater as well as on land, and instantly mark them as outsiders among those who know where to look. To date, all known gillmen serve the unfathomable schemes of the reclusive aboleths, but the control seems more akin to the effects of a geas or dominate person spell. Unless the gillmen go against the orders of their aboleth masters which are often unknown to them, masked in the form of hidden memories triggered by key events , they are free to act as they wish.

In a campaign, these orders are wholly up to the GM, meaning the player of a gillman character cedes some elements of selfcontrol when it best serves the story of the campaign. A gillman PC is a human character in all ways save that he loses the normal bonus feat entitled to a human at 1st level as well as the normal bonus skill points at all levels.

Instead, the PC gains the following abilities: Amphibious Ex : Gillmen can breathe both air and water. Sleek Swimmer Ex : Gillmen gain a Swim speed of Any gillman who spends more than a full day without fully submerging himself in water risks internal organ failure, painful cracking of the skin, and death within 4d6 hours. He can always chose to take 10 on a Swim check, even if distracted or endangered.

He can use the run action while swimming, provided he swims in a straight line. Such attitudes are not popular in abolitionist Andoran, which fashions itself after Old Azlant in architecture and many elements of philosophy. Here, as elsewhere, those with the strongest claims of Azlanti blood are often members of the old guard, more interested in tradition and honor than in blazing new trails or embracing modern ideas.

Elves tend to distrust humans of Azlanti heritage, remembering the battles of ancient days before the fall of the Starstone, when the aboleth-backed scions of Azlant toppled the great cities of the elvenfolk and forced the race to abandon Golarion through interplanetary gates. Despite the passage of 10 millennia, the elves have not forgotten the transgressions of the past. Many, especially among the mysterious seafaring elves of the Mordant Spire, still hold a potent grudge.

For their part, Azlanti humans tend to look down on nonhumans even more than they do their less genetically gifted human cousins. Names: Chelaxians have a common first name and family or surname. Chelaxian names tend to sound grandiose and learned, and are used in full when officially addressing them. Chelaxians are the descendents of Azlanti refugees, their blood mixed with that of pale-skinned Ulfen raidermerchants from the northern climes. As a result, they tend as a people toward dark hair, dark eyes, and pale skin— skin lighter than their duskier Taldan cousins.

They have sharp features, in particular prominent, narrow jaws; strong noses; and thin, arched eyebrows. Chelaxians are by and large an industrious, aggressive, selfconfident people, combining the best and worst traits of the Taldan and Ulfen peoples. They undercut the power of, and later successfully rebelled against, their elder Taldan neighbors, and soon dominated the surrounding regions either directly or indirectly, forming the Empire of Cheliax. They even successfully removed the center of worship of the god Aroden from Taldor to their empire, and spread both north into Varisia and south into Garund in a series of conf licts known as the Everwar.

As a result of this continual expansion, Chelaxians soon dominated and subsumed native peoples and cultures, so that often a region would have a ruling elite or caste of Chelish origin or with a strong Chelaxian heritage and blood ties running back to the empire. For centuries, these peoples lorded over Avistan as the heirs of the Azlanti and the chosen people of the god Aroden. Now that god is dead, but Chelaxian pride lives on.

This pride gives them great power and selfassurance, yet also blinds them as to the dangers that they face. Diabolism speaks to the legendary Chelish pride and wrath, as well as to the need for order and control bred into the citizens of an imperial heartland over centuries of privilege.

The inherent self-conf idence of the Chelaxians, instilled from birth, has served them well through the death of a god and the fall of an empire. They believe they are inherently more capable of handling any situation than are other human groups—this might take the form of either helpful, positive advice or arrogant dismissal of rival viewpoints.

This aggressive attitude causes them to persevere even in desperate straits. When faced with an insurmountable challenge, where a Varisian might seek easier paths or a Kellid might grumble about the will of the world and move on to other matters, a Chelaxian re-evaluates a situation and seeks not only the most expedient answer, but also the most advantageous one.

This self-confidence is bolstered by a great heritage and a love for learning, which manifests in theology, arcane studies, and mechanical invention. Chelaxian specialists are particularly capable in discovering, developing, and adapting new techniques revealed by their own research or learned from other cultures. Chelaxians favor rich trappings both in their homes and on their persons, and even the meanest of them dresses to the best of his ability.

Popular outfits include velvet doublets and silk leggings with rich brocades and lace trim, often covered with a cloak of rare and valuable color or made from the hide of some uncommon creature. In more hostile climes, they prefer inscribed armor often of dwarven manufacture and filigreed weapons with rich and detailed provenances. This is not to say that, when money is tight or circumstances dictate, they are not above traveling in mufti or mixing with the hoi polloi in order to avoid difficult circumstances.

They never sacrifice their bearing, however, and cannot hide their confidence. Chelaxians venerate those heroes who embody their values: strength, nobility, ambition, and—most of all— success. Chelaxian heroes tend to be accepted into the larger community with titles, grants of land, and marriage into the more respectable houses. By the same token, those heroes deemed a threat to the local ruling class are watched and, if necessary, removed, either by sending them on quests to other areas or—if necessary—in the dead of night.

As a people, Chelaxians are serious about oaths, contracts, and promises, and they believe in playing by the rules, all the while checking for loopholes to best subvert those rules. In urban centers, numerous lawyers, justices, and bureaucrats have Chelaxian blood in their veins. As a result of this inherent lawful tendency, they often have difficulty with other races and ethnicities with more f lexible attitudes to property and socially acceptable behavior 1 CHELAXIAN OPERA The advanced, urbane nature of the Chelaxians is seen in their love of theater in general and opera in particular.

Even the smallest and most remote of Chelaxian communities boasts a local theater company, and those with trading connections with the larger cities often import noted actors, actresses, musicians, and playwrights to their stages.

High Chelaxian Opera is the most advanced form of this art, found mostly in the cities of the south, and performed in ancient Azlanti librettos are provided for the literate patrons, translators for those less fortunate. More common are the tragic and comedic operas performed in most major cities. In recent years, the current government of Cheliax commissioned new works more fitting to the current political situation within the former empire.

These new works bear titles such as The Feast of Asmodeus and Victory of the Hellknights, and feature stirring, dark, militaristic music and the inevitability of the triumph of Cheliax. It is of little surprise that these productions seldom play outside Cheliax itself. Comedic opera is more open and relaxed, and as a result is much more popular among the lower classes, Chelaxian and otherwise.

Comedic performances rely on stock characters and traditional plots with a broad addition of physical humor and bad puns. The plots of traditional comedic operas often deal with separated twins, princes and princesses unaware of their birthright, promises made and then twisted, misunderstandings, and last-minute rescues by a wise authority figure. Stock characters include the wise authority by tradition a priest of Aroden , an oafish Ulfen, young lovers, squabbling parents, tricky gnomes, and one or more crafty Varisans who either are punished for their deceptions or swear themselves to honesty as a result of the lessons learned.

Other components include mock fights with padded batons, wordplay, and a chase scene. A recent variant of the comedic opera has appeared in Andoran and has gained a great deal of popularity and notoriety. While at first blush it seems similar to the traditional forms, it includes characters like a fumbling diabolist and a befuddled evil ruler.

A common joke is that while Varisians might form an angry mob, Chelaxians instead create a well-ordered, disapproving queue. Those at the top of the hierarchy have names that span the entirety of the territory—the name of the city, geographic region, or a nearby major river or mountain. Mid-ranking Garundi are named after sites, geographic features, or buildings known to most locals—waterfalls, neighborhoods, or important local industry.

Low-standing clan members have names of local sites often from near where they were born —streets, statues, trees. They generally make for kind and caring neighbors, happy to pitch in to build a stronger community for everyone to enjoy. The interactions between individuals and families within their own community is not well understood by outsiders.

There is no certain knowledge regarding the origins of the great and noble Garundi race, with their proud cheekbones, broad shoulders, dark skin, and often prematurely white hair. While scholars agree that they originally came from the southern reaches of Garund, few can agree on exactly when this migration occurred or what prompted it.

Despite some superf icial similarities, there is no reliable evidence that the Garundi had any direct ties whatever to the Azlanti culture of the Inner Sea, although a great deal of evidence shows they were contemporaries. Garundi culture tends to divide itself into relatively small clans usually 15—20 families that travel together. In their hearts, it seems Garundi are expansionists, as a newly founded clan tends to travel until it discovers an area suitable for development not already claimed by a Garundi clan.

That others might claim the territory seems to matter little to the Garundi. Once the clan f inds a suitable location, it immediately begins building a permanent settlement if one does not exist and establishing a strictly hierarchical community. This hierarchy is only applied to Garundi families.

Any families or clans from other cultures have no part within this organization— neither above nor below the Garundi hierarchy, but outside it completely. So while one Garundi family might rank higher or lower than another, all nonGarundi families are considered equal. Any other Garundi clans that pass through the territory are welcomed as honored guests but are not allowed to settle permanently.

After a full month has passed, the visiting clan is obligated to leave or to pay a hefty tribute to the dominant families of the existing community. If this tribute is paid every month for a full year, the clan is allowed to join the permanent community, but must take up the lowest rung on the social ladder. As I entered the Garundi town I was met immediately by an angry mob. It was with no small amount of surprise that I discovered they were shouting not at me, but rather at one of their own, and chasing him from their midst.

When it was clear he would not return, the crowd turned to me. Levanston Jeggare, Pathfinder Characters: Garundi Even the earliest records of Garundi arrivals in the northern countries indicate this behavioral pattern—a clan would arrive and immediately settle in the port city. The next arriving clan would stay in the port city for a month or two at most, then move on to the next town inland and establish a community there.

This trend continued until, in present times, thriving Garundi communities exist throughout the civilized nations. Often it is possible to estimate how long the Garundi community has been part of a town by how thoroughly its members have established themselves in the greater community through marriage. Children of mixed Garundi marriages rarely have the deep black skin tone of their southern forefathers. While the wave of immigration from the southern continent ended centuries ago, there yet remain new clans of Garundi wandering the land searching for a town, fertile valley, or river delta to claim as their own.

These clans come from existing Garundi communities and are generally composed of individuals whose ancestry placed them on the lower social strata.

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