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Parallel initiatives, raising the awareness environmental, and economic relevance. This of property owners in preventive conservation collaboration could produce concrete proposals approaches could prove effective in convincing to revive this marginalised community and the them to hold onto their havelis, rather than opting ailing cultural landscape of Manchar Lake and its for their demolition.

Pursuant to the Shikarpoor campaign, The challenge would nevertheless maintain resources are now being sought to raise awareness momentum and build a chain of support about the Mohanna way of life, not only as mechanisms for longer sustenance. The means for learning how to respect nature, but understanding and appreciation of the significance also as an opportunity offering a unique cultural of traditional knowledge is perhaps the key to experience, with the potential of becoming success.

Artisans and craftsmen skilled in the a driver for the local economy. There is a need to use of traditional materials need to be identified implement supportive policies to help to reinstate and patronage provided for the revival of their the significance of cultural heritage of this oldest respective crafts, keeping in mind economic surviving Indigenous community in Sindh, to considerations.

Focused programmes to support ensure their continued existence. Effective dwellers. The recorded information and knowledge long-term policies and strategies should seek the gained through this first stage of information- collaboration of government departments and gathering would then become a resource for educational institutions to ensure continuity in 17 HC-DAPNED, in collaboration with WMF and EFT, has successfully organised two consecutive community involvement events.

Further work is still needed, however, to initiate restoration pilot projects that can become training worksites for local craftsmen, artisans and conservation technicians HC-DAPNED, Anila Naeem 43 cultural heritage management, training and local a carefully-gauged direction that is sensitive capacity building.

Local administrations need to to heritage management. Only by employing address the crisis of historic built environments a balanced approach, can the history and practices urgently, by developing policy guidelines that of unique living cultures remain intact for future would steer new development processes in generations to cherish. Conclusion In the context of Pakistan, for reasons of political being fundamental to the sustenance of cultural friction, professional laxity, a shaken sense of pride and natural resources, so that they are given their and ownership, economic impoverishment, and rightful place in development policies and common a lack of scientific research, the diverse cultural practice guidelines.

Unless serious efforts are made landscapes of Indigenous communities and historic by all stakeholders to realise their responsibilities, environments remain deprived of their due status combined with a forceful implementation of the law, in the national framework of recognised cultural the chances of survival for historic environments and heritage. The two case studies above provide cultural landscapes will remain bleak.

This environment, ecosystems, natural resources and, requires serious steps towards the establishment of above all, communities at risk. When taken side- an oversight system, which develops appropriate by-side, these two cases seem to be miles apart; yet regulations, creates supportive technical and the binding thread central to both is the continued financial mechanisms, organises programmes risk of the loss of heritage values in spite of these to inculcate a sense of pride and appreciation having immense potential to contribute towards amongst resident communities and administrative social, economic, cultural and environmental authorities, and encourages them to engage issues.

It is time for a greater awareness about in their responsibilities as custodians of their the value of these time-honoured traditions as inherited legacy. References Hamilton, A. A New Account of the East Indies. Heritage Property Owners London, A. Houseboat: Mohannas Project Report 2 ed. Naeem, pp. Oliver, ed. Architecture of the World. Cambridge, Cambridge Karachi.

Desertification, Development, and Naeem, A. Shadows of a Glorious Past. Vandal, ed. Life in Small Economic Geography, 53 : — Lahore, Trust for History, Art and Architecture. Hosagrahar, J. Naeem, A. Inventory and Mapping of Heritage Places — Vol. Timbers of India and Burma.

Heritage in Sindh. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 70 : — Wooden Symphonies of Bygone Hughes, A. Gazetteer of the Province of Sindh. Hussain, S. Lake Manchar is Dead. India, Environment Portal: Knowledge for Change. Sindh State of Environment and for Conservation unpublished. Havelis — A Living Tradition of Rajasthan. Haryana, India, Shubhi Publications.

Lambrick, H. Sind: A General Introduction. Ondaatje, C. Environment and History, 7 : — Toronto, Harper Collins. Majumdar, N. Explorations in Sind. Pelletier, F. The Bird People [video]. Karachi, Indus Publications. Upside Distribution. Postans, T. Personal Observations on Sindh. London, Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans.

Karrar, eds. Sixth Pramar, V. Landscapes: Retrospection — Transformation — Revival. Heritage Preservation Act [online]. Anila Naeem 45 Ross, D. The Land of Five Rivers and Sindh. London, Troup, R. Indian Timbers. Society of Arts, — Sahrai, T. Karachi, Sindhi Kitab Ghar. Cultural Diversity [online]. Manchar: The Dying Lake. The Convention on the Protection Smyth, J. London, W. Traditional artisan and craftsmanship skills, such as carpentry, masonry, bricklaying, lacquer- and gilt-work, porcelain inlaying, and Vietnamese traditional enamel, are highly valued and continue to be studied.

Traditional artisan and other forms of intangible heritage. With the manufactured bricks and tiles, produced pottery establishment of Cochinchina as a social and and specialised in masonry, porcelain mosaics, financial hub in alongside the Huong river lacquering, carpentry, conical hats, silk weaving, firstly by Kim Long, and then Phu Xuan in wine making, kite making, and silver and gold and the creation of Thanh Ha harbour as a core jewellery making.

Nguyen Lords not only implemented an country, became one of the biggest centres for open-door policy, encouraging trade with foreign artisan villages nationwide. He expanded the territory of southern Viet Nam. His descendants continued his cause by further expanding the territory towards the south. However, the civil war — between Le King-Trinh Lord of Tonkin and the Nguyen Lords of Cochinchina led to the separation of Viet Nam into two parts, which could be considered two independent nations.

During the Tay Son dynasty, artisan and craftsmanship skills did not develop, due to the ongoing war. Nguyen Lords. Vietnamese traditional artisanship According to the records maintained by and craftsmanship contributed significantly to Nguyen Lords Phan Tien Dung, , as early as this growth.

By the second year of Emperor dramatically, especially because there was no longer Dong Khanh , there were nearly 1 a need for high-quality artisan and craftsmanship workers working in 67 workshops, managed by work for the royal family. They were to ensure that the Court heritage buildings were in a dilapidated condition. The roots of the latter can be found examples of the great talent that existed at the by the Ly Lords, with strong links also to the time.

Later, royal cultural traditions between the monuments and the natural landscape. It was the first lacquer- and gilt-work, embroidery, porcelain national-level heritage preservation project to inlaying, and sculpture — not only need to be be approved in Viet Nam. The project focused preserved, but also to be developed for heritage on the long-term sustainable preservation of restoration. After the war, the Vietnamese a total capital investment of over billion government with the significant financial support Vietnamese dong approximately USD 40 million.

Central and local government invested in moving Included among the buildings that have been workshops and factories out of the capital city, restored or rebuilt over the past 20 years are: Ngo in order to provide a temporary means to restore Mon Gate, Thai Hoa Palace, Hien Lam Pavilion, constructions that were on the point of collapse. Additionally, Dong Khanh. In addition, Infrastructure, landscape preservation and traditional royal festivals were given new life, such as restoration projects have been carried out, alongside the Nam Giao sacrifice, the successful examination intangible heritage safeguarding projects.

It also hosted several national The preservation of antiquities has also been and international conferences on the safeguarding a focus. At that time, porcelain wares were bought for architectural decoration, as well as for daily Carpentry use or as display pieces, as the art of applying From the middle of the eighteenth century porcelain to mortar became more popular. The lords made headquarters. Many of the carpenters came court. After porcelain inlaying reached a climax.

The buildings , when the Nguyen Lords no longer existed, of that time, such as Hien Nhon Gate, Chuong those carpenters worked mostly for commercial Duc Gate, Kien Trung Gate in the Imperial City , markets, or diversified into creating different kinds An Dinh Residence, and, in particular, Thien Dinh of wooden products. Porcelain inlaying spread from worked together.

Significantly, all of the artisans the court to religious architecture. The rituals associated with the porcelain inlaying. Carpentry processes, from important. The organisation of mason-artisans and material preparation, to the assembly stages and porcelain-inlaying artisans was similar to that of the implementation of rituals need to be further carpenters. Porcelain inlaying Lacquer Phuoc Tich Village saw the use of porcelain The traditional craft of lacquering was imported inlaying in the sixteenth century.

Later, the skill from the north of Viet Nam. Under the Nguyen developed to serve the needs of Nguyen Lords in Lords, craftsmen worked under good conditions Cochinchina. The under the management of the Royal Wares majority of constructions within the Imperial Manufacturing Workshop. Under the Nguyen City, including the main hall in the Royal Tomb Lords, artisan workshops were directly managed complex, were lacquered and gold or silver gilt; by the court.

The Phap lacquer, along with the daily tools employed by lam workshops reached their peak in the period the mandarins. Phap lam wares lacquerers have been also recruited to meet the were used for exterior decoration work, ritual tools need to complete restoration work. Restoration and royal wares. The need to use Phap lam in heritage heritage preservation and restoration. Historical preservation and restoration; such as decorative documents of the Nguyen Lords show that, in tree planting, traditional aodai-tailoring, traditional , under Emperor Minh Mang, a Phap lam flag-making, bamboo curtain-making, and parasol- workshop, with 15 craftsmen, was established, making, for decoration, festivals and rituals.

Phan Thanh Hai 55 Conclusion The past 20 years — have seen for this transmission. In the future, local artisans and craftsmen centred on handicraft along with the anticipated further concern as well masters from other regions. Additionally, there is be safeguarded and developed further in close a need to produce high quality handicraft products connection with heritage conservation. However, it is also important to create Since almost all traditional craft masters local human resources for heritage conservation.

References Le Quy Don. Kham dinh Dai Nam Institute of History. Khoa hoc Xa hoi Publishing House. Vi cong cuoc bao ve, giu vol. Phan Tien Dung. Vietnamese court music [online]. The authors focus on Buddhist heritage, as Buddhist heritage is significant to the heritage of Sri Lanka.

Since its introduction to Sri Lanka in the third century BCE, to date, Buddhism has remained an essential element of the identity and living traditions of most Sri Lankans. Buddhist heritage has survived throughout this time thanks to ongoing maintenance carried out by the communities under the authority of kings and rulers.

A preventative form of conservation has existed, enhancing building development, since construction techniques have constantly been in use. Building conservation has continued taking into account intangible values, building functions and the changing needs of the people. Building alterations, additions, extensions, and repair works have been carried out by each and every subsequent king.

The continuity of Traditional Management Systems and conservation practices, and their application to modern systems and practices, is discussed in relation to the case studies of Buddhist Temples in Anuradhapura and Embekke Devale.

It remained the major administrative described in the vinaya — the disciplinary code and religious centre until the eleventh century. The code provides guidelines on the Even though the kings moved administrative construction of monastic buildings: it states capital cities, they still considered Anuradhapura that dilapidated buildings are not suitable for an important centre a detailed account the meditative life of monks, and it allows on Anuradhapura appears below.

King monks to be involved in carrying out repairs Parakramabahu I, who ruled Polonnaruwa from to the monasteries. The key text is hundreds of yalas of paddy [lands], to restore the Mayamatha. King Kirthi Sri Rajasinghe aged as to its materials or decrepit, or it may not — , who was one of the last kings conform to jati, chanda, vikalpa or abhasa modes.

Those of Kandy sent a mission to repair the ruined [temples] whose characteristics are still perceptible temples of Anuradhapura, and, in particular, in their principal and secondary elements [are to be to restore Sri Maha Bodhi the sacred fig tree renovated] with their own materials. If they are lacking in the Mahamewna Gardens in Anuradhapura. Dagens, , p. The Mihintala slab inscription of Mahinda When a temple, a linga, a pedestal or images are to be IV allows us to observe how religious buildings renovated, the work is always to be done with materials were maintained.

There are two slab inscriptions, similar [to those used initially] or better ones and which are identified as part A and part B. These never with less good ones. In the case of a decrepit inscriptions provide an insight into what was [object], the knowledgeable one wishing to restore it, considered a properly constituted Buddhist will proceed as indicated above in order to return to monastery in the eleventh century CE.

Part its original condition according to rule; [but], if the A of the inscription describes, in detail, the object was small it is desirable that it be restored to rules and regulations for the maintenance at least equal size or even larger one for that is always and administration of the buildings and the auspicious.

Part B describes the There are numerous surviving inscriptions dating wages and remuneration of those working on the back to the third century BCE which serve as maintenance of the buildings: useful resources of information.

For Buddhists, constructing monastic buildings and attending to For the cost of whitewashing and flowers [shall be repairs are considered meritorious acts, restoration given] three kalan and two aka [of gold] a year; to must be carried out systematically, and every man a servant who attends to the rearing of calves, one kiriya must be paid for his work.

The Jetavana Sanskrit [of land] and vasag from Damiya; for cloths [used] for inscription, dating from the ninth century CE, the merry festival of the great Bodhi-tree…. Ceylon provides a precise description of Sri Lankan Archaeological Department et al.

They all shall be experts in their [respective] work…Means of subsistence, to same extent as is given To each of three warders of the dagebas — to one of these, shall be granted to the officer who Navagunnamaha-saye, Nateviya maha saya and Ambulu superintends works. Moreover, when thus conferring dagaba, — [respectively shall be assigned] two paya [of maintenance on the latter, his work and so forth shall land]; to each of those sweep, go repeatedly round and [first] be ascertained, and the name of he who is [thus] take care of the dagabas which belong to At-vehera [and settled [with a livelihood], as well as his respective are] on the upper and on the lower rock of this vihara duties, shall be recorded in the register.

Those of the five shall be granted one vasag relic-house in the image-house castes who work within the precincts of the monastery and in the refectory, as well as to the two laundrymen shall receive [their] work after it has been apportioned; who wash clothes, yellow robes for covering the body and they alone shall be answerable for its correctness. Blame [shall be place on] the superintendents, Archaeological Department et al. Ceylon Archaeological Department et al.

Geiger, , 34, 39 should be allocated to the repair and maintenance of monasteries. The Chulavamsa describes the ancient practice or The pillar inscription at Mannar describes renovation of religious buildings: it is the act of the way that these lands were protected: conservation that brings continuity to the heritage: To these villages, royal officers and piyovadaran shall not He removed mayura piriwena which was five and twenty enter.

Those of the archery department, the tax officers, cubits high, and replaced it by a pasada twenty-one headmen in charge of districts and of provinces shall not cubits in height. To Kumarasena [his brother] he enter. The employees of two offices, deruwana, perelaki, made over his former revenues and fixed them exactly; archers, guards, and those of the paid services shall not [namely] one half to the Kalavapi and two hundred enter. Carts, oxen, laborers, imposts of cooked and raw fields. He renovated the ruined Lohapasada and he rice, and periodical gifts of milk and oil should not be restored the dilapidated umbrellas on the three great taken.

The perenattuvam shall not enter. The ferrymen thupas. Geiger, , 38, 52—55 residing in these villages should not take avalin [oars? Sadaladdan shall not enter. In the same chapter, he describes the renovation Officers in charge of kabhali shall not enter. Those who of holy places as offerings carried out by the Kings: reside at the Navehera shall not enter. Those who reside at the Rakavehera shall not enter. Having forbidden In the Thuparama [the King instituted] as offering the entry of the aforesaid persons, we, two of us [the to the thupa a restoration of what was ruined [in the two officers who planted the pillar] have given to these thupa].

Likewise in the temple of the Tooth Relic he villages the immunities [sanctioned by] the council. To the Bhikus dwelling on the island The great chronicle of Mahavamsa written in he distributed robes and other nine gifts. Having the fifth century CE, along with other chronicles, undertaken renovations in the vihara here and there, such as Chulavamsa are good sources of he had some fine stucco work executed for the wall of information for the details of monastic buildings the [Relic] house.

They include numerous stucco work made for three big chetiys and put golden references to the philosophy that underlies umbrella as well as a ring for the protection against the continual construction and maintenance lightning. Geiger, , 38,70—75 of monastic buildings.

The Mahavamsa Great Chronicle discusses Also, more than examples of the repair, restoration and renewal of monastic buildings. It notes that He [King Dhatusena] undertook buildings for the first stupa in Sri Lanka the Thuparama , built the enlargement of the Abhayauttara vihara and in the third century BCE, has been renovated for the stone image of the Master [Buddha] he had more than 16 times, and that it was the foremost a shrine erected with a mandapa [pavilion].

As the duty of a newly-crowned king to repair or eye placed by Buddhadasa [in the image] had been renew a monastic building. The Mahavamsa and lost, he made a pair of costly jewels into eyes for the Chulavamsa describe the renovation- and plaster- Master. Further he wrote gleaming diadem of rays and work festival of a stupa: out of dark blue gems a shining coil hair, like-wise a bandolier of god and a tuft of down [between the During the reign of King Bhatikabhaya […] here he did brows] and a golden garment, mandorla of gold, a lotus carry out the work of repairing the lohapasada and built flower and a magnificent lamp.

There also he presented two vedikas for Mahathupa, and the [hall] called the countless robes of diverse colours. Geiger, , made for the image of then Master in black stone and 38,61—69 for the world teacher named Upasumbha. Also he had the ornament described above made for the Buddha Apart from the renovation of these main shrines, image known as Abhiseka and a Bodhisattva temple on evidence can be found of conservation acts, and the the left side of the Bodhi Tree.

For the [Bodhisattva] restoration of other sacred places, like Mihintale. Metteya he had the complete equipment of a king The Mahavamsa records that King Devanampiya prepared and ordered and ordained a guard for him Tissa also planted a Bodhi Tree at the Chetiya within the radius of yojana. He had the vihara adorned Pabbataarama monastery and completed building with bands of ornament called dhaturaji and [he repair works at Mihintale Geiger, , xix, Traditional heritage management and maintenance History provides several examples illustrating practice of new art works and knowledge, for how people have devoted themselves to the example, the addition of front pieces to the dome conservation of Buddhist heritage in the past.

Buddhist heritage has been preserved with the Properties were given to the care of monasteries direct involvement of the people and brought to ensure regular maintenance would take into the present as a result of their repairs, place, and they were also protected by property restoration work and also new construction maintenance laws and regulations. People had to work Wijesuriya, Traditional repairs and pay taxes to occupy the monastery-owned lands, renewal practices focus on continuity.

Throughout by contributing regular maintenance work, both Sri Lankan history, with the exception of royal in tangible and intangible forms. There are hundreds of practices. The buildings have adapted over time vihara and devale throughout the country, built to the changing needs of society, through the use with the direct patronage of different kings and of additions, alterations and expansion. Other regional leaders, during different eras. The vihara buildings have been built using non-permanent are dedicated to the Buddha while the devale are materials, such as wood, hay and bamboo.

Many dedicated to different deities, which are regional, religious monuments show evidence of the national and even international. New additions The kings and leaders built these monuments have been placed over older structures. We also to fulfil their religious requirements, but they also see changes and adaptations in decorations wanted to ensure the long-term survival of these and artwork.

Through repair and renewal, new temples, even after their lifetimes. More specifically, materials and techniques have been introduced. Even if little of Rahula, , p. According to the Mahavamsa, the original structure of a structure remains, its a king who neglected the Thuparama Stupa was life spirit, history and integrity remain unbroken threatened in a dream that, if he did not attend through ritual ceremonies.

Renewal can also be to repairs, the relics would be removed from seen as an opportunity for the application and the stupa. The kings established by the same rulers. When a temple is appointed officials to carry out the repair works of built, whether vihara or devale, the greatest concern religious buildings. Some temples were built by well-known history. Therefore, in addition to appointing priests foreign craftsmen, depending on the power of and custodians, they created a community-based the patronage, with the hope that they would be management system of allocating property to the finished using the highest craftsmanship skills.

They had the power to offer hundreds Others were built by local artisans and craftsmen. However, they did not consider that their different purposes within Sri Lankan society: the actions were carried out on behalf of the temple; vihara is dedicated to Buddha and the devale are instead, they considered that their actions were in dedicated to deities.

Buddhism, as a philosophy, the name of their duty to the king. They carried shows the path to a better way of life. It is based out this duty with dedication, as they believed that on karma: the good and bad actions of a person, it would provide them with benefit for a better life. It is based on the system, and the people were responsible for reason and alongside the four noble ways of the both the tangible and intangible tasks related to Buddha forms the basis of the life of a Buddhist.

Some duties were conducted by the However, under the tradition of worshipping community and, as a result, were performed well. Therefore, people fortune for their enemies. They think only to their with highly-developed skills were cultivated, and current life and expect material gains through those skills were passed down from generation the undertaking of various types of offerings to generation.

This led to the creation of a self- and rituals. However, it is significant that there sustained caste system within Sri Lankan society. Therefore, there remains a small conduct daily, monthly and annual rituals, Buddhist shrine in most devale. For a Buddhist vihara, every ensure Buddhist traditions are upheld and provide full moon is special, and certain full moons religious support for their communities.

They throughout the year are celebrated specifically by live inside the temple premises, within separate certain temples. For a devale dedicated to a god, buildings. Rituals in the devale are conducted by lay Wednesdays and Saturdays are considered special, custodians and this duty is passed from generation as they are believed to be beneficial days.

In both to generation. They live within the village, as part of practices, there is an annual festival to demonstrate the community, but hold a special position in the the full might of the temple. Several British civil servants engaged religious, cultural and social significance. Thereafter, and the first planned city in Sri Lanka; indeed, the Department of Archaeology was established the Buddha visited Anuradhapura, and named it in , in order to safeguard Sri Lankan as the future religious capital during his lifetime.

Exploration and Town planners have since identified Anuradhapura restoration works took place in the Anuradhapura, as a well-designed city, consisting of different Polonnaruwa and Sigiriya areas. One major circles of functional zones.

These shrines platform of the Jetawana Stupa. Although the comprise different monasteries built during the cube and pinnacle were restored, the dome was reign of different kings; six of them are stupas. There was a Buddhist awakening in the s The stupa, the most dominant structure and due to the oppression felt in the community the sacred object of worship, plays a major role under British rule.

There was a movement to within a Buddhist monastery, both religiously restore the Ruwanweli Stupa, considered the and symbolically. Therefore, most kings invested most sacred by Buddhists, although it was only much of their energy in building very large the third tallest. The movement was led by stupas, each one seeking to out-do the one Buddhist monks and supported by Buddhist before. There was no professional brick structure, the Jethawana Stupa, is also involvement in the technical aspects of the in Anuradahapura.

They stayed with the intention the community were involved. That system of protecting the sacred Bodhi Tree from enemies continued for several more centuries until the and wild animals. It is said that they engaged in Dry Zone Civilisation, recorded settlements in the task with great dedication.

However, once the Sri Lanka are considered to have started in the restoration works began, a number of people from north central of the island, identified as a Dry other areas of the country settled in the area. The Zone; after the twelfth century, those areas were development of highways, railways and irrigation abandoned and the civilisation moved to regions works by the British rulers assisted the influx in the north western, central, western and further of people and Anuradhapura began to urbanise.

Civilisation shifted to the south, due Anuradhapura. The Department of Archaeology to health threats, such as malaria, and political commenced several other restoration projects. However, unlike other Sri Lankan safety harnesses or helmets, Figure 1 temples, the temples of Anuradhapura were as they believe that they are The Ruwanweli Stupa.

Given their religious protected when carrying out this importance, these temples have a large number of good deed. This group receives both local and foreign visitors, and participation in the support of many trained activities is relatively high. In particular, when the volunteers, and especially from pilgrims visiting June full moon takes place, more than two million from faraway places.

The surface of the stupa is pilgrims visit Anuradhapura for the festival known first cleaned and the dust is washed away. There as Poson, to celebrate the arrival of Buddhism is a belief that, after cleaning the surface, a sudden in Sri Lanka. Thereafter, the surface of the stupa June festival, significant restoration work is painted with lime wash.

Whitewashing the stupa is considered a task One such major restoration project is the that brings merit to Buddhists, and it is also whitewashing of the Ruwanweli Stupa, with lime a means for those carrying out the work to Figure 1 , requiring a budget of approximately purify their minds, as it is an aesthetically-pleasing USD 50 , which is beyond the means of the object. Buddhists tend to view contributing Department of Archaeology. However, thanks to whitewashing the stupas as a tradition.

The professionals from the using basic techniques and manual tools, over Department of Archaeology have adopted a period of almost three months. The stupas have thus been left with dedication. They lived on and cultivated the lands exposed brick surfaces. However, for the Buddhist they were given. Even where lands were far from pilgrims who visit the stupas, this exposed the devale, responsibilities were taken seriously.

Those who had daily ritual responsibilities lived on Additionally, the rough brick surfaces of the the premises full-time and took decisions without stupas are vulnerable to decay and encourage requiring direction from superiors. When of water, and the grooves in between the brick the Department of Archaeology undertook layers provide a good environment for plants to restoration works on the devale in , all of the grow.

The lifespan of these stupas is therefore physical aspects were intact, meeting professional lessened, compared with the stupas that have requirements. Once the maintenance works were been plastered and whitewashed. Additionally, complete, it was possible to see that, in over as community participation in restoring the brick years, the architecture of the devale had not stupas is low, they are difficult to maintain. All been damaged. Thanks to the in-depth knowledge, of the maintenance work must be carried out by understanding and traditional conservation skills, government authorities, which is a heavy burden ongoing interventions had been carried out on the for the Department of Archaeology.

Although the reparations and maintenance were not carried out on the structures under the Embekke Devale remit of any written legal, or accepted, set of Embekke Devale is an historic shrine, dedicated restoration regulations, they were undertaken to the god Kataragama and situated in the central in a professional way. Its Undoubtedly, structural components have been history dates back to the fourteenth century, and amended as a result of decay or damage, but the it is believed to have been built by the queen significance of the temple has not been affected.

This The timber columns and roof, clay tiles, and devale is considered a place of miracles, bringing wattle and daub walls on earth-filled plinths are wealth, prosperity and good health to its devotees. With the tropical climate, heavy structures built according to a traditional temple rains, powerful lightning and high humidity in village layout. Maintenance therefore requires that these which are similar in design, but not identical.

Until They are dedicated to different Gods, but conduct recently, the granary and kitchen were thatched comparable rituals, with only minor changes. The ruler had granted acres of land to the Most significantly, the repair and maintenance Embekke Devale and 40 different groups of people work was carried out with care, using the skills and were assigned with duties to serve the devale.

Those resources of the community. The timber came from people were directed to carry out various duties, of their own lands, the hay from their paddy fields four general types: and the clay tiles were made by assigned potters. However, two major incidents had an impact on traditional heritage and conservation The people who were assigned to carry out management in Sri Lanka. Prasanna Ratnayake and Sumedha Mathota 67 In , an open economy was introduced and skilled craftsmen to carry out the carpentry, thereafter the country also saw sociological change.

Sri Lankans began to go abroad for employment, Once the Department of Archaeology took over, in particular to Middle Eastern countries. Once however, traditional artisans and craftsmen lost the the economic conditions changed, the traditional opportunity to work in the temples and had to find cultural pattern was washed away. The Department of Archaeology became using their materials.

The devale community has involved in roof conservation in , using continued to provide services, as there is a belief materials purchased with government funds and that avoiding duty is bad for their karma and employing permanent technical staff. Architects future good. Although maintenance work is no and archaeologists were consultants on the project longer fully carried out by the local community, and technical officers and draftsmen supervised.

Some people, unable to undertake their local area, and materials were bought through the assigned duties, seek instead to fulfil their duties government procurement process. It is likely that by sending a hired person in their place, or by some of the materials were imported from other reimbursing the cost of hiring a person. Clay tiles came from the government tile However, there has been a slight drop in devale factory some 80 kilometres away.

These people are were provided by the village blacksmith, and brass not Buddhists, and so are not rendering religious locks were made by a craftsman in the village; service in the work they carry out, and therefore the entire workforce thus came from the same their work might sometimes not be in accordance village. Indeed, in every village, there were enough with the local cultural context. Conclusion In the last century, Western conservation principles conservation professionals and local communities.

These principles Most Buddhist religious monuments were served their purpose at that time Wijesuriya, abandoned and hidden after the devastation , p. The conservation profession has since caused by the final siege of South Indian King Raja grown and asserted its professionalism in the Raja I — CE. The colonial government heritage sector, and conservation professionals subsequently explored the deserted monuments have adopted the role of acting as advocates and documented the findings.

The Department of and guardians of heritage. While this approach Archaeology, the principal institution responsible has its place within institutions, the reality of for the management of archaeological remains of working within communities requires a different Sri Lanka, was established in Institutional attitude. Sometimes communities are suspicious conservation practice placed importance on the of outside intervention, particularly when their retention of the material of the monuments as heritage is involved.

The difference in values and historical evidence. Although conservation work might Many researchers have overlooked the existence of be seen as an intrusion on cultural practices, it is the conservation approaches that have developed important that living communities are aware of all in Asian societies. This may well be due to the of the options for maintaining their monuments, fact that such approaches and their underlying so that they are able to make informed decisions.

The West has introduced Western skills and modern Western-inspired conservation conservation concepts to the East which conflict practices, so that the two perspectives for retaining with the traditional maintenance of both tangible the cultural and spiritual values of buildings and and intangible heritage.

References Ceylon Archaeological Department. Epigraphia Wijesuriya, G. Conservation and Maintenance. Wijesuriya, ed. Monuments and Sites: Sri Lanka, Vol. London, published for the Government pp. Wijesuriya, G. The past is in the present: Dagens, B. New Delhi, Sri Lanka. Chulawamsa: being the more conserving the sacred, pp.

Translated from German into English by C. Colombo, Ceylon Wijesuriya, G. Aotearoa: the Concept of Continuity. Sully, ed. Chronicle of Ceylon. Rahula, W. Colombo, M. A peak was reached during the reign of the Mughals. Karkhana were overseen by court nobles, using a well-established management process.

Quality of production was assured through the use of: strict supervision; rewards for the artisans; a defined hierarchy, reflected in the wage structure, with master craftsmen at the top and apprentices at the bottom; and technical including spiritual training. The decline of the Mughal Empire from the early nineteenth century onwards also saw a decline in the karkhana. By the time of British rule, karkhana had become standardised: pre-defined items of work were introduced, and the Public Works Department established requirements for the use of new colonial construction materials and techniques.

The present paper aims to explore and compare the historic imperial karkhana system with the modern system of craftsmanship used for the conservation of historic medieval architecture in India. The decline of the karkhana system and the present state of craftsmanship will be examined through the use of comparative technical and non-technical parameters to compare original construction techniques and contemporary artisan skills in conservation work.

The need to recognise the significance of the role of traditional management in fostering master craftsmanship will be highlighted, and its implications for contemporary conservation practice and policy will be emphasised. These are a unique amalgamation and Zafar Mahal , where techniques of Indian and Persian architecture, in terms degraded in terms of artistic craftsmanship, scale of geometrical architectural proportions, and perspective.

Prevalent Indian which developed during a period when rulers Traditional Knowledge Systems concerning Indian patronised the construction of monuments. As a result, new called the Mughal style. The foundations of the Mughal Dynasty were Conservation of these monuments is thus seen laid by the Mughal Emperor Babur in The introduction of modern materials has Jahangir — and Shah Jahan — Under the patronage of these emperors, Mughal It is thus important to explore the differences architecture reached its peak, and distinctive between traditional and modern artisan building masterpieces were created.

Mughal of historic medieval architecture in India. The karkhana system Mughal karkhana were originally craft production the supervision of masters, who were patronised centres, patronised by rulers and their ministers, by the Mughal emperors. Large-scale architectural and other persons of influence, and attached to projects, which adopted geometrical proportions, forts and palaces Verma, Here, some of the unique compositions, innovative engineering most accomplished artisans from all over the world, and technological expertise, and outstanding with a diverse range of craftsmanship skills, worked craftsmanship, were carried out under the oversight together to produce remarkable artworks under of well-organised administrative systems.

Each workshop was devoted known as buytutat, buytutat refers to an imperial to the production of one particular article and was karkhana proved to be an important step supervised by an expert in the article concerned. Karkahanas were responsible for the chief accountant and various other persons development of artisanal skills to create products were also employed. The quality of the work that met the expectations of the ruling classes, and produced was inspected by sairafi or sarraf, who which were of a standard that it was not possible was a quality assurance expert.

The result of such to find in products made elsewhere Vanina, In Shahjanabad and Fatehpur Sikri, the The building department, established and karkhana were situated in the heart of the fort and controlled by the rulers, was responsible for all not in separate areas. The role of the karkhana in forms of building activities, including design, artisan production was thus crucial.

The building Persian influence department included several experts who would Artisans were primarily influenced by Persian carry out the construction work: art, as Persian artists were numerous within the karkhana. Additionally, in the mid- position was only assigned to a person of high sixteenth century, the Mughal courts attracted status, generally a mansabdar member of the many artists, craftsmen and calligraphers from Iran imperial bureaucracy of the Mughal Empire.

This significantly influenced the Mughal ability to quantify building materials from art and architecture of India Soucek, The The karkhana system had a well-formulated qualifications listed are still relevant today, but, management system, which was overseen by as the materials and construction systems have imperial nobles from court such as family members changed, so has the knowledge bank of the of the emperor, courtiers, and other important mir-Imarat.

He was an accomplished of a mir-Imarat who was highly experienced engineer and highly recognised for his work in in Persian architecture. Archival records also i-imarat. They were selected according to the inform us that many other mir-imarats received qualifications required for the project.

For a number of khitabs awards for their designs example, Qasim Khan was chosen to be the and creativity. He was an expert in creating sabat such as Bibi ka Makbara and Dara Shikoh Begley covered passages , and naqab zadan bridges and Desai, Dayalan, ; Balasubramaniam, Supervision of construction works Design process An evaluation of Mughal monuments, their Designing a building was a process undertaken materials and construction techniques, and with a great deal of care, requiring the completion historical records, including miniature paintings, of various stages before finalisation.

The key steps reveals that Mughal supervision of the work can in the design process included: preparation of be classified into several categories: supervision the conceptual ideas generally carried out by the for quality checks, stone work, art work emperor ; discussions on the concepts; preparation carving, inlay, etc. Historical records show that thousands of labourers and artisans were involved in the Involvement of experienced architects construction process, raising questions as to Mughal monuments and buildings constructed how supervision on such a large scale took from to were designed by highly- place.

It is arguable that very strict supervision experienced architects and engineers, who must have been in place to achieve such high- drew up detailed plans using their geometrical, quality craftsmanship. It is also stated that lazy, negligent and building and construction work, including dishonest employees had to be fined Sarkar, , gilkaran clay workers , khisht malan brick layers , p.

These working conditions were effective in sangtarash stone cutters , durudgaran carpenters , encouraging artisans to produce their best work, khisht puzanb brick burners and ahak puzain as evidenced by the architectural examples that lime burners Beveridge, Every artisan was remain.

In other words, the nobles created ideal categorised according to their individual skills and conditions for the artisans to produce their best- was paid accordingly Beveridge, Selection process Training of artisans The selection of artisans for building construction, The importance of the practice and transmission and in particular, for the artistic elements, such of newly-developed skills was also promoted, as decorative works, was carried out with a great alongside production.

As such, karkhana were deal of care, taking family traditions and skills also hubs for the provision of artisan training. Sambul Halim Khan states that the Akbar recruited many artisans from a number of social status of Mughal artisans was also viewed in different countries, and, in particular, recruited relation to the family to which he belonged, or the from Persia and Central Asia; these artists in caste to which he was a member Khan, A hierarchy of inherited family knowledge, and the teacher with expertise existed within the karkhana: master whom he had studied.

In order to produce the artisans were at the top with their apprentices best results, a strict selection process was essential subordinate. Those so that the master artisans could train them selected were considered specialised artisans, in specific skills Beveridge, Karkhana and, as a result, their social status was very high, thus acted as vocational education centres, for and their skills were held in high esteem by the expert artisan training skills Khan, Many of these materials are either unavailable or inaccessible in libraries in India, especially in some of the poorer states and this collection seeks to fill a major gap that exists in access to knowledge.

For other collections we curate and more information, please visit the Bharat Ek Khoj page. Jai Gyan! Uploaded by Chris Mank on November 28, Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest.

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Ariel view of Hampi Asha photo Beautiful Temples at Hemakutta Hill, Hampi. Beauty of Hampi. Bellary, Karnataka, India - panoramio - Robert Helvie 2. Bellary, Karnataka, India - panoramio - Robert Helvie 4. Bhojana Sala at Hampi Card Players Chariot, Vitthala Temple, Hampi. Clock tower of vijayanagara empire. Dsc Jpg Elephant stables Elephant stables. Flower macro Gajashala at Hampi, Karnataka. Ganesh Statue at Hampi , Karnataka, India. Grandeur of Hampi Group of monuments at Hampi karnataka Hampi Hampi Vijaynagar Empire.

Hampi PM. Hampi 2. Hampi architecture Hampi City. Hampi Horse Stable. Hampi horse Stable. Hampi Monument 2. Hampi monument is a Unesco world heritage of vijayanagara empire Hampi Pushkarini. Hampi Ram Mandir. Hampi Ruins Hampi Ruins - Grinding Stone. Hampi ruins - Hampi - Karnataka - Hampi ruins photograph by Arun Jayan Hampi ruins photograph by Arun Jayan 2.

Hampi ruins photograph by Arun Jayan 4. Hampi ruins photograph by Arun Jayan 5. Hampi ruins photograph by Arun Jayan 6. Hampi ruins photograph by Arun Jayan 7. Hampi ruins photograph by Arun Jayan 8. Hampi ruins photograph by Arun Jayan 9. Hampi Ruins Pradeep1. Hampi Ruins Pradeep2. Hampi Structures. Hampi Temple 2. Hampi Temple Ruin. Hampi Temple Ruins. Hampi Temples. Hampi Vijay Vithha temple Ratha.

Hampi vitthal Temple. Hampi, India, Temple on top of Matanga Hill. Hampi, Karnataka , India - panoramio - Robert Helvie 7. Hampi, Karnataka, India Hampi,India Hampi - Handicrafts at hampi PC MurugaNandu. The Vitthla temple is the most exquisitely ornate structure on the site and represents the culmination of Vijayanagara temple architecture. It is a fully developed temple with associated buildings like Kalyana Mandapa and Utsava Mandapa within a cloistered enclosure pierced with three entrance Gopurams.

In addition to the typical spaces present in contemporary temples, it boasts of a Garuda shrine fashioned as a granite ratha and a grand bazaar street. This complex also has a large Pushkarani stepped tank with a Vasantotsava mandapa ceremonial pavilion at the centre , wells and a network of water channels.

Another unique feature of temples at Hampi is the wide Chariot streets flanked by the rows of Pillared Mandapas, introduced when chariot festivals became an integral part of the rituals. The stone chariot in front of the temple is also testimony to its religious ritual. Most of the structures at Hampi are constructed from local granite, burnt bricks and lime mortar. The stone masonry and lantern roofed post and lintel system were the most favoured construction technique. The massive fortification walls have irregular cut size stones with paper joints by filling the core with rubble masonry without any binding material.

The gopuras over the entrances and the sanctum proper have been constructed with stone and brick. The roofs have been laid with the heavy thick granite slabs covered with a water proof course of brick jelly and lime mortar. Building activity in Hampi continued over a period of years reflecting the evolution in the religious and political scenario as well as the advancements in art and architecture. The city rose to metropolitan proportions and is immortalized in the words of many foreign travellers as one of the most beautiful cities.

The Battle of Talikota CE led to a massive destruction of its physical fabric. Dravidian architecture survives in the rest of Southern India spread through the patronage of the Vijayanagara rulers. Criterion i : The remarkable integration between the planned and defended city of Hampi with its exemplary temple architecture and its spectacular natural setting represent a unique artistic creation. Criterion iii : The city bears exceptional testimony to the vanished civilization of the kingdom of Vijayanagara, which reached its apogee under the reign of Krishna Deva Raya Criterion iv : This capital offers an outstanding example of a type of structure which illustrates a significant historical situation: that of the destruction of the Vijayanagara kingdom at the Battle of Talikota CE which left behind an ensemble of living temples, magnificent archaeological remains in the form of elaborate sacred, royal, civil and military structures as well as traces of its rich lifestyle, all integrated within its natural setting.

The area of the property is adequate to accommodate, represent and protect all the key attributes of the site. The majority of the monuments are in good state of preservation and conservation. The highly developed and extremely sophisticated settlement articulates architectural manifestations, agricultural activities, irrigation systems, formal and informal paths, boulders and rocks, religious and social expressions.

However, maintaining these conditions of integrity poses significant challenges derived mainly from pressures associated with development, planned and unplanned, which pose a threat to the landscape of the property, as well as encroachments and changes in land use, especially increased agricultural activity of commercial crops that might threaten the physical stability of the diverse monuments.

Particular attention will need to be placed on regulating residential constructions and potential development to accommodate visitor use, as well as infrastructure to address communication needs, particular by pass roads. Addressing also the visual impact of modern electrification fixtures, telephone poles and other elements, will also be important to maintain the integrity of the property.

The attributes like strategic location and abundance of natural resources, rendering this spectacular landscape befit for a Capital City have been maintained in the property. The authenticity of the site has been maintained in terms of location and setting, as the original setting comprising of river Tungabhadra and boulders is fully retained. In terms of form and function, the integration of the geographic setting with man-made features in the design and functional layout of the entire capital can still be discerned and the form of the original city planning with suburban pattern is evident.

The largely untouched archaeological elements provide ample evidences of authentic materials and construction and interventions have maintained qualities when undertaken. The stages of evolution and perfection of the Vijayanagara Architecture are evident in the monumental structures As for traditions and techniques; the physical remains are a befitting tribute to the ingenuity of the builders in shaping the metropolis of this grand scale by utilizing locally available material, traditional knowledge system and skilled craftsmanship.

Today there is a continuity of several religious rituals, associations, traditional skills and occupations within the society that have been maintained. However, the destruction by the battle of Talikota and the passage of time have led to some of the original functions and traditions becoming obsolete and altered, while several are in continuum forming an integral part of the site like festivals, temple rituals, pilgrimage, agriculture, etc.

The Virupaksha temple is in constant worship, this has led to many additions and alterations to different parts of temple complex. Similarly, the haphazard growth of modern shops, restaurants in and around it and its bazaar that caters to religious and social tourists has impacted adversely on its setting as has the asphalting of the roads over the ancient pathway in front of the Virupaksha temple.

The tensions between modern uses and protecting the fabric and setting of the ancient remains need to be managed with the utmost sensitivity. There are different levels of authorities and agencies that have mandates that influence the protection and management of the property under a diversity of Acts. It is also functioning as World Heritage Site Co-ordinator at the local level and district level interacting with various local self Government and district authorities and the Hampi Development Authority for preserving the values of the property.

The management of other aspects of the property such as the cultural landscape, living traditions, rest with State, Town, Municipal and Village level agencies. The constitution of a single heritage authority, Hampi World Heritage Area Management Authority HWHAMA ensure the effectiveness of the management system and coordination of works from different agencies while allowing local self Government authorities to continue to exercise the powers as enlisted in the respective Acts.

The establishment of the Integrated Information Management Centre and initiation of the Joint Heritage Management Program are major steps towards effective protection and management within the Indian legal frame work. The present perspective acknowledges its diverse attributes and complex cultural systems.

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UNESCO World Heritage Site, Group of Monuments at Hampi, Remains of great Vijayanagara empire #17

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