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All necessary permits for the construction of a facility can be obtained within the shortest time possible, no later than 30 days. Contracts under such conditions have already been signed with companies from Hungary and the United States, while the Municipality is also in the final stages of agreeing further investments with companies from Austria, Greece and France. The town boasts the only aqua park in Serbia, the only waxworks museum in Serbia — one of only six in Europe and the Tiger Zoo.
Situated on the right side of the River Danube, Kladovo town and municipality has a population of 23, - according to the census - with some 9, living in the town of Kladovo itself. Kladovo municipality covers km2 and includes the towns of Kladovo and Brza Palanka, as well as 21 villages. The town is bordered by the River Danube, to the north and northeast, and by a range of low mountains to the south and southwest.
The main eeconomic activities in the municipality are linked to the hydro-electric power plant, with other businesses have principally began to support the building and operation of the power plant. It is linked to the E motorway and Ibarska regional road via the M and M Investors are advised to invest in agricultural processing systems, i. Kladovo belongs to the municipalities identified as having the greatest tourism sector potential.
Kladovo can be proud of numerous cultural and historic monuments, such as Lepenski Vir, Diana Fort, ruins of the bridge, Trajan Table and Fort Fetislam. There is a seven-day deadline for processing a request for issuance of the urban planning act, an excerpt from the urban planning document and registration of construction works, while a construction permit is issued over a period ranging from one month up to six months.
Up to a month is required to obtain an operating licence. The municipality has 5, citizens registered as unemployed. The zone will cover an area of 23 hec- tares and represents an ideal location for business facilities, residential buildings, sports facilities, etc.
The land earmarked for the industrial zone has adequate utility infrastructure, water and electricity supply and is traversed by an access road, while the for mer barracks are at the disposal of investors and certain modifications could see this military facility become functional once more. Wherever a projected facility is of interest to the municipality is determined by a decision of the president of the municipality on the basis of recommendations provided by the municipal council.
If an investor needs to pay for the constructing of utility infrastructure elements then said investor is exempt from paying an equal amount of the fee, i. Land leased by the municipality to an investor with the aim of facilitating the construction of production or processing facilities and the hiring new workers, includes certain incentives such as exemption from paying a percentage of the lease fee 0. The remaining fee should be paid in four equal annual instalments, with the interest rate determined by the National Bank of Serbia.
Agricultural production is extensive and widespread on the territory of the municipality. There is organised production of raspberries around 4, tonnes per year and plums. The municipality has registered employees classed as unqualified, 65 deemed semi-qualified, with junior school education, with the high scool graduates, five with further education diplomas, 41 with higher national dipomas and 19 university graduates. Kladoroba I: located between the main road M and the Belgrade-Bar railway, this brownfield site covers an area of 1.
Kladoroba II: located alongside main road M21, The municipality has a number of business and industrial zones between the road and the Belgrade-Bar railway, this greenfield site covers an area of 3. City Depot: earmarked for the development of a residential and business complex, this brownfield site 0. Tulimirsko Polje Industrial Zone: centrally located, this site includes a number of greenfield plots. Brajkovic II Business Park: lying to the east of the main road M, this site offers opportunities for greenfield investments.
With the right conditions, an investor can obtain approvals and permits issued by local authorities and public enterprises in a period of just eight days. After obtaining necessary documentation in the municipality, a permit is issued within 48 hours. According to the National Employment Service, the municipality has 1, unemployed workers, almost a half of whom possess a high school education.
The municipality boasts an industrial zone that covers an area of close to 30 hectars. It is fu infrastructurally equipped, offering water and electricity supply, telephone land lines, a sewage system, etc. It lies kilometres from Belgrade via the E motorway. All relevant permits can be obtained within legally defined deadlines, providing that an investor possesses all relevant technical documentation. When it comes to acquiring permits from the state authorities, the municipality will provide investors with useful assistance and support.
Kraljevo has a population of , These include five big companies, 45 medium-sized firms and 1, small enterprises. The further development of industry is favoured by existing infrastructure, a good base of raw materials and excellent transport connections. The city area boasts Industrial Zone 4 is specialised in the production industry and covers The zone has complete communal infrastructure and a small airport for sporting aviation and smaller aeroplanes.
Plots within the zone are owned by private companies. Zone 5 Sijace polje is a business-residential area covering In , the infrastructure of the airport was redeveloped to suit the needs of business. Zone 11 Gornja Ada is a service-storage space of According to the General Urban Plan, this area has been earmarked for the development of a servicestorage area with residential and business capacities.
In addition to the a for ementioned zones, investment opportunities in Kraljevo are additionally strengthened by six trade areas and two operational zones. Leading economic branches in Krupanj are agriculture, wood processing and tourism. Since the municipality is lacking sufficient tourism facilities, potential investors are advised to consider investing in the construction of such facilities. The municipality is the owner of two business zones ideal for commercial activities.
Location 1 and Location 2 both have appropriate infrastructure and are leasable for a period of 99 years, with the construction land development fee included in the lease. The zones can be divided into several smaller portions. The city lies on two rivers: the Western Morava and the Rasina.
The municipality has vast tourist potential. Both locations are near the town centre. All documentation needed to implement an investment project can be obtained in just a few days from the submission of a request to the relevant departments in the municipality. The municipal authorities have commenced construction of an industrial zone.
There are total of 21, inhabitants in the municipality. The municipality consists of 37, hectares of arable land, which offers ample opportunity for the development of agriculture. Furthermore, the municipality offers extremely favourable conditions for fruit growing, especially apple and plum. The development of agriculture has created opportunities for capacity building in terms of mini food producing plants, dairies, and kiln and refrigeration facilities.
The previous period saw many companies unsuccessfully privatised and for ced into bankruptcy, though one of the few companies still operating with relatively good results is tourist company Planinka, which was trans for med into jointventure company.
Planinka is the owner of restaurants in Lukovska town and spa. Planinka has exploited the waters of the Prolom Spa, bottling and successfully marketing the water as Prolom Voda. The municipality has yet to install infrastructure in the industrial zone, but a total of 3, workers are available to potential investors. Of these, 1, represent an unqualified work for ce, 1, have secondary education, while 86 have completed higher education and 63 are university grad- uates.
At the entrance to the city are the ruins of the first church founded by Serbian King Stefan Nemanja: Sv. Bogorodice Monastery, while on the hill above the town is the endowment of Stefan Nemanja: the Monastery of St. Nikola built from The municipality belongs to the circle of the most underdeveloped municipalities in Serbia and has the status of the top ranked municipality among priorities of the national development policy.
The flatlands represent an ancient floodplain around the River Pek, while the mountainous area is represented by the slopes of Homolje Mountain. Half of the territory - 35, hectares — is covered by arable, agricultural land, while the other half is largely for estland. The municipality is 69 kilometres from Belgrade and 27 kilometres from Valjevo. According to the census, Lajkovac has a total work for ce of 10, and a total of 3, employed citizens.
The lowland slopes of Mount Homolje are rich in wildlife, which have been traditionally hunted for centuries and nowadays represent a very important factor for the development of the municipality. Agricultural production — including crop farming, sheep rearing and cattle herding — is the most important economic activity, while wood processing, lime and stone quarrying and the tourism sector are also important.
The local economic structure includes 50 companies and retail outlets. The municipality is open to all for eign and domestic investors and is ready to provide all required permits and documentation for new investors in the shortest possible period. The municipality will provide required permits and utility services.
There is also a plan to build an industrial railway line that will be linked to the Belgrade-Bar railway, as well as sever- al roads. The zone also has a reloading unit and the Adriatic transport route is just four kilometres from the industrial zone.
The municipality provides incentives for building permits, i. According to the census, the population of the town was 7, and the municipality had a total of 8, residents. Lapovo is one of the most prospective towns in the surrounding area, thanks to its great geographical location. The municipality has developed construction, graphics, chemicals industry and trade sectors.
The last few years have seen special importance given to the development of private enterprise, which employs around 2, Lapovo workers. The municipality stretches over square kilometres and has 25, inhabitants. The Lebane industrial zone, which is located at the very heart of the town of Lebane, covers an area of 12 hectares and includes constructed facilities covering 17, square metres individual surface areas range from to 10, square metres.
The zone boasts an adequate ble, secure economy that will make it a significant part of Serbia and Europe. The site offers remarkable opportunities for development and investments in new production facilities and many other services. The Lapovo Free Zone covers an area of approximately 80 hectares, with the possibility of further enlargement. There are two halls of square metres and one hall of square metres, while electricity and gas facilities are also nearby.
The Municipality of Lapovo offers substantial benefits to companies hiring significant numbers of workers, depending on the level of investment and other conditions. Lapovo also offers great opportunities for investments in hunting grounds and fishing, thanks to the proximity of resorts in vicinity of the Great Morava River.
Natural resources, including fertile land, mineral deposits, thermal springs and for ests, are abundant in the municipality. Leskovac boasts quite appealing market access, with close to 30 million consumers within a kilometre radius. The municipality also benefits from national CEFTA membership and customs-free agreements, with access to 60 million people, and the Free Trade Agreement with the Russian Federation, which itself represents a market of million people.
Leskovac ranks second in Serbia when it comes to available work for ce, which stands at 20, people. Of these, are university graduates, possess junior college diplomas, 13, are high school graduates and 3, have completed middle school. There are total of 4, companies registered in the Municipality of Leskovac. This includes limited liability companies, small enterprises, medium-sized enterprises and nine large companies. According to ownership structure, 61 companies are partly state-owned shareholder companies, are privately-owned, 35 are public enterprises, 20 companies have mixed ownership and ten are completely state-owned.
The North industrial zone stretches across The zone has a mixed ownership structure. The East industrial zone covers an area of The South industrial zone covers The international Belgrade — Athens rail line also runs through the site. Land lease incentives are available for investors hiring more than five workers, submitting a valid business plan, defining the employment dynamics and providing appropriate guarantees.
It takes exactly 94 days for an investor to receive relevant permits, i. The municipality covers an area of square kilometres and has 90, inhabitants. Loznica is kilometres from the E70 motorway Belgrade-Zagreb and is in close proximity to pan-European Corridor The municipality is also traversed by two regional roads: the M and M ECONOMY The most important industries here are tex- tiles, wood and metal processing, machine production, construction material production and others.
When it comes to accessing local markets, Serbia has 7. Investments in the machine processing industry are recommended here, due to the educational background of the work for ce. Two thirds of the unemployed people in the municipality have completed high school education. There are a total of 3, companies here, most of which are privately owned. The municipality also has many natural resources, an available work for ce and an efficient admin- Employment incentives are offered to investors istration.
Furthermore, the fact that Loznica has town status brings many incentives for investors and offers significant potential for the development of tourism. This zone stretches across Land development incentives range from a 0. The municipality currently has around 25, inhabitants, with almost half of the work for ce active in agriculture.
A quarter of the avail- able work for ce works in industry,while a quarter is employed in the remaining economic branches. It covers an area of km2. The Town of Ljig has a population of around 3,, with a total of 14, residents in the municipality.
Ljig has an excellent geographical position and transport access. Locally, Rajac Mountain is only 10 km away and Banja Vrujci is just nine kilometres away. The municipality has a large number of companies operating in the field of industrial production, with building materials production, metal processing, the food industry and tourism represented. Underexploited capacities exist in the fields of leather processing and agriculture goods.
Plans are also in place to construct an industrial park here and it is worth mentioning that the municipal authorities are issuing permits to potential investors in the shortest time possible. Ljig has great tourist potential. Ljig Spa, one of only eight spas holding all necessary licenses, has a confirmed regulatory development plan with separated areas for the construction of apartments, hotels, chalets, sports fields, camp sites and rural tourism. Investment projects for Ljig Spa include the building of a covered hotel pool, construction of a hotel complex, redevelopment of the existing conference centre and building of sports fields, as well as the upgrading of the existing medical building, an apartment building with three-star resort facilities and construction of public baths and an aqua park.
Investment plans on Mount Rajac are already in progress. Investments are hoped to be lured in rural tourism facilities and excursion organising, as well as congress, recreational, educational and winter tourism. The municipality is relatively small, covering just square kilometres.
According to the census, the town of Ljubovija has a population 4. The municipality covers an area of square kilometres. The most important transport routes here are the M and M Though the percentage of the population engaged in agricultural activities is constantly decreasing, it remains the most numerous.
Moreover, agricultural yields are increasing thanks to the introduction of new varieties, modern mechanisation and technology to vegetable farming and fruit growing operations. Almost all households are currently involved in growing raspberries, while the same records of success records available for tobacco growing. Municipal territory includes land that the local authorities are ready to offer potential investors. The future industrial zone, which already houses a number of companies, offers possibilities for the realisation of numerous projects and the municipality is seeking serious investors.
The industrial zone is located along the main M Zvornik — Bjelovar road and the border with neighbouring Republika Srpska. Municipal authorities plan to construct industrial zone facilities Phase II for use by companies engaged in secondary and tertiary economic activities. Moreover, some 30 to hectares of the zone are suitable for light processing industries, warehousing, services and other teritary econom- ic activities.
Deadlines for issuing required permits are as follow: Act on Spatial Planning — up to 30 days; environmental impact evaluation — up to six months; building permit and registration of construction works — up to 8 days. The municipality stretches across square kilometres and, according to the census, has 14, inhabitants. Mali Zvornik has a relatively favourable transport and strategic position, though its potential is quite underexploited.
The municipality also has an important transit and border position, linked as it is to neighbouring Republika Srpska Bosnia via three bridges — rail, road and pedestrian. The area boasts abundant natural resources, a sufficient work for ce, developed wood and metal processing industries and mineral raw materials. Tourism, as an economic branch with almost completely untapped potential, accounts for 3.
We would like to recommend the following branches for investing: production and processing of organic food, bottling of natural mineral water, production of electricity and construction materials, and wood processing. The valley entrance is surrounded by low hilland, while a its end towers the Homolje mountains. The municipality boasts economic zones with industrial facilities, which is situated on the right bank of the River Jablanica and is fully equipped in terms of infrastructure.
The site of the Banja Sijarinska spa resort has been earmarked as the location for construction of factories — one for the production of mineral water and one for liquid CO2 gas. The site already has a water supply and energy network. However, plans envisage a municipality are fertile land, water resources and areas of unspoilt nature. An integral part of this decision relates to the programme to develop the Spatial Plan in accordance with the Law on Planning and Construction.
The final draft strategy was developed in conjunction with a local partnership team, the coordinator of working groups, working groups and regional development experts, along with the council leadership and municipal coordinator. This document presents the needs of the municipality and its inhabitants in the coming years. This was a brownfield investment worth nine million Euros and the new owners intend to employ new workers in the first phase.
Russian investor, Adriatic Stroinvest, has begun construction of a luxury 5-star hotel at Sijarinska Banja. Fruit farming represents the dominant economic branch here, while the privately-owned companies that represent the local industrial sector are mainly located in a designated industrial zone at the foot of Mramorsko Hill. These companies cover metal and construction mate- The Municipality of Mionica is 80 kilometres south of Belgrade in western Serbia. It covers an area of square kilometres and has a population of 16, There are several regional roads in close proximity to the municipality, including the important Ibarska A-road, which is just 20 kilometres from Mionica.
There is also the Belgrade-Bar railway and a small airport seven kilometres away in Divci. The municipality has beautifully preserved nature, which offers good potential for the development of tourism, as well as the development of organic food production. The mountain is ideal for hiking, winter sports, camping and hunting.
The General Spatial Plan envisages the development of an industrial zone with partial infrastructure it has water and electricity supply, a sewage system and telephone landlines. There are also thermal springs in Lepenica two kilometres from Mionica and a sports and rec- reational centre is currently being built there. This procedure usually takes up to 15 days.
Negotin is also kilometres from the nearest motorway, though it is just 10 kilometres from the Prahovo Harbour on the River Danube, which is arguably the most important comparative advantage of the municipality. ECONOMY The privatisation process is still in its infancy in the municipality, though the largest company here — chemical company Prahovo — was privatised two years ago.
Small enterprises account for a significant share of the total economic activity in the municipality, while there are around 1, private entrepreneurs and over companies registered in the municipality. The Danube, one of the most important natural resources in the municipality of Negotin, is about 10 km from the town itself and represents an important European waterway, which offers great opportunities for the development of industry, transportation and tourism.
A section of the zone covering The National Investment Plan has granted financial assistance to realise plans for the industrial zone. The advantages of the industrial zone lie primarily in its vicinity to main roads, the local railway station and the Prahovo Harbour on the Danube part of pan-European Corridor 7. The low level of this fee reflects the ef for ts of the municipal authorities to entice as many investors as possible to the municipality.
Lavrentiadis S. Several investors have expressed interest in building wind farm power plants on Popadija Mountain, as well as considering investing in smaller factories. Quite a few investors have already invested in agricultural production and leased arable land. It is located on the crossroads of the most important Balkan and European transport routes. The total surface of these 12 locations is hectares. This zone covers an area of hectares and is mostly privately-owned.
The zone has complete infrastructure and a partially developed secondary network. The construction land lease is 0. The city authorities will build and redevelop the required infrastructure for an investor wanting to develop untapped production capacities. The lease fee here depends on the number and location of a land plot. The deadline for utilising construction land is set between two and five years, depending on the agreed duration of the lease.
In case an entire location is leased, the deadline can be extended. Bricolage, McDonalds and others. It has a temperate-continental climate, covers an area of km2 and is home to just over 15, residents. This spa town boasts a thermo mineral spring with natural mineral water and mineral-rich mud. The most significant potential and the greatest opportunities for investments are in the area of health tourism, sport tourism, congress tourism, hotels and catering. The municipality has a population of around ,, while the town of Novi Pazar has a distinctive culture, history and tradition.
The municipality is located kilometres south of Belgrade, on the road to Podgorica and the Adriatic Sea via the Ibarska A-road. The whole area has abundant natural resources. Plans are in place to reconstruct the Novi Pazar-Sjenica and Novi Pazar-Tutin regional roads, while the National Investment Plan has confirmed it will grant funds for construction of the Belgrade — Bar motorway that will pass between Sjenica and Novi Pazar.
Works are set to be completed by The local private sector is quite well developed and extremely diverse, with the number of small and medium-sized enterprises currently standing at 6, The industrial zone is still state-owned, but the process of privatising this land is currently underway. The zone is equipped with relevant infrastructure. The economic branches considered suitable for investing are as follows: the processing industry particularly textile and leather processing , agriculture, organic food production and tourism.
The municipality is predominantly a mountainous region, with a pronounced gradient of territory. The municipality covers an area of The municipality lies right in the middle of the Belgrade — Adriatic Sea road, ensuring its suitability for transit tourism. The municipality has good hydro-potential and quality woods. The most developed industrial branches in the municipality are wood processing, plastic materials processing and the machine parts industry car parts, hydraulics and pneumatics.
Most of the work for ce has completed high school education. It is km from Belgrade via international highway E Corridor 10 , km from Bulgaria and km from the border with Romania. The municipality covers square kilometres, of which The municipality has a strong agriculture sector, small industries, trade and tourism.
There is a huge space and ample resources for the development of eco-tourism, the exploitation of for est fruit, bottling water, etc. The main ricultural households, 2, of which are registered. There are also great opportunities for livestock farming, particularly sheep breeding. The whole area is rich in herbs and natural habitats, wild fruits and many types of edible fungi, making it ideal for the production of healthy food. Switzerland cement , Dalle Carbonare s.
All necessary permits could be approved and issued in a period from seven to 30 days. The municipality has signficiant coal, sand and gravel deposits, as well as modest reserves of contruction materials. It covers an area of km2 and is home to around 75, residents.
Due to its geo-strategic position and land configuration, the municipality has a developed traffic and transport network, encompassing all for ms of transport except air travel. It offers exceptional conditions to utilise waterways as transport routes to connect to other parts of Serbia. The transportation of goods by river is handled through three local ports: Dubravica, Kostolac and Ram.
The municipality offers excellent farming opportunities, with rich agricultural land covering Coal lignite is the most important energy potential of the area and is set to retain its dominant role of energy in the long term. Agriculture and the food production industry mark the dominant economic branches in the municipality.
We would also like to emphasise the production of honey, livestock breeding and viticulture. The municipality has assigned land plots along the regional road for the construction of production facilities. The deadline for issuing operating permits is six months. Agriculture, together with plant and animal rearing, is represented on 38, hectares of arable land. The city is currently undergoing development of an SME economy, with construction and agricultural production in the ascendency.
The Development Fund of the Republic of Serbia has placed priority on programmes contributing to the development of rural settlements, tourism, export incentives and agricultural production. Moreover, the Spatial Plan has placed special importance on the Kostolac Basin, while the Republic of Serbia plans to support work on the Great Morava in order to extend navigation infrastructure towards central Europe.
The municipality has a population of 64, and covers an area of 1, square kilometres. The biggest companies in the area are Tigar Tyres 2, employees , Tigar AD 2, employees and Prvi maj 1, employees. Pirot is also famous for its own brands of cheese, rugs and carpets. There are 9, jobseekers in the municipality. The first stage completing infrastructure on 6.
The municipality owns this zone, which represent one of the first examples of a public-private partnership in Serbia. This is also the most successful zone in Serbia. Investors are exempt from paying fees for land development, as well as fees for issuing various documents and permits such as utility infrastructure connection fees , providing they build within the limits of the free zone. The town has an estimated population of 15,, while a total of 36, citizens live in the municipality as a whole.
It is also at the crossroads of the TS kV energy line with the branches DV and 35 kV, as well as being the crossroads of a main gas pipeline and the Rzav regional water supply system. Ponikve Airport is just 41 km away. The for mation of the industrial park is being financed by the National Investment Plan.
Only 1, metres from the zone is the substation kV and 35kV, and through the zone run two power transmission lines of 10kV. The area is covered by the terrestrial telephone system and has mobile telephone reception. The existing railway station already includes a customs department. There are 2, unemployed in the municipality, of all academic profiles. Some 12, residents are temporarily working abroad, while average monthly per capita income is 15, dinars.
Depending on the degree of local jobs created, investors could benefit from exemptions from paying local taxes and utility fees. Investors can obtain all necessary permits and papers needed to commence operations within 60 days. A key transport town, Priboj is crossed by the main Belgrade-Bar railway connecting the Serbian capital to Podgorica and the Adriatic coast.
Priboj covers an area of km2, which constitutes 8. At the last count census , the municipality was home to a total of 30, inhabitants, 20, of which were residents of the Town of Priboj. Most of these facilities are currently not operating, while others are in need of revitalisation to improve their industrial capacities.
The economic potential of Priboj Municipality is being sought in the development of the SME sector, agriculture and tourism, but also in the development of transport vehicle technologies, heavy industry and the chemicals industry. World-renowned vehicle factory Priboj — FAP is in the process of preparing for privatisation, while the municipality has a busy local economy with nearly companies and 1, retail outlets employing close to 8, Priboj workers.
Perhaps the first modern analysis of the water from this spa was per for med in Vienna in The monastery was declared the seat of the fourth diocese by the Studenica Council in , thus becoming the centre of the entire Dabarska Diocese under the guidance of Bishop Hristo for , brother of Saint Sava. The local government offers full support for investors , as does the Serbian state. Depending on the size and type of investment, direct agreements are possible with regard to all local fees and taxes.
The town of Prijepolje, according to the census, has 15, inhabitants. Prijepolje is km away from airports in both Belgrade and Sarajevo, while it is km from Podgorica. Prijepolje has developed textiles, footwear, metal, chemical and construction industries, and relatively developed trading, utility services, agriculture, catering and tourism sectors. The entire surface area is 50 hectares, of which 25 hectares are equipped with infrastructure. The industrial zone consists of an industrial park and 13 plots totalling 2.
Funds from the National Investment Plan are funding construction of access roads and substations. Prijepolje Municipality also has several other locations available for new investments. The positions of these locations are favourable, with the majority of sites being close to the M21 road and Belgrade - Bar railway.
Being close to two borders allows Prijepolje to supply goods and services to the markets of neighbouring countries. The municipality is available to all investors requiring help to start new businesses. In addition, the municipality is in process of preparing bonuses for investors as an incentive for hiring new workers.
Development of a project to choose the most attractive location to build hotels of highstandard category is yet to be planned. The largest number of small companies operate in the field of trade The advantages of the Municipality of Prokuplje for the development of the SME sector include the existence of production facilities, availability of a qualified work for ce and the willingness of the municipality to assist in SME development through n offer of free urban land.
The municipality is ready to attract potential investors by earmarking sites for the further development of SMEs and assisting through the existing office for local economic development, as well as by combining potential partnerships of the public and private sectors BID zone, Business Incubator Centre and offering an ecologically clean environment. These sites are: Pojate - Northern Zone, area 1. Investors hiring in excess of workers will only have to pay their land lease fee after 10 years, compensation for land development is completely relieved and the fee for service charges is paid after 10 years.
Additionally, it is possibile to obtain free utility connection, editing priority construction sites, fast licenses for the start of construction, a series of tax and other reliefs in the initial period of operations, coupled with the possibility of obtaining an interest-free loan from the Development Fund, etc.
Trgopromet was successfully privatised and Univerzalpromet was bought by F. The roads that run straight through the heart of the municipality give it an important transit role, since they serve to link the Great Morava and Kolubara Valleys. The road connecting the municipality to Kragujevac is 32 kilometres long, while the route to Smederevska Palanka is 19 kilometres long. Some 6. However, it boasts several smaller plots of land suitable for the construction of small production facilities.
These sites are equipped with appropriate infrastructure. However, the land development fees are as low as possible. The local leadership believes that the municipality has no potential for the development of large industrial complexes, but is rather suited for further development of the pri- mary economic sector: agriculture, processing agricultural produce and the food industry.
As such, one investment option could be the production of health food and the development of transit and rural tourism. Together with the Church of St. It spreads over km2 along the central part of the Ibar Valley and areas of the Kopaonik and Golija mountains. The area also boasts important historical monuments and the monasteries Gradac, Stara and Nova Pavlica and Nikoljac.
Also present are the food, timber and building materials industries. A total of 33, hectares is mainly used for intensive agricultural production of cattle breeding and fruit growing. The collection of wild fruits and medicinal plants is still in the development phase, though the potential is huge — given the 24, hectares of meadows and pastures within the Golija Biosphere Reserve and Kopaonik National Park. Seasonally collected are wild strawberries, blueberries, juniper berries, mushrooms and herbs.
Moreover, chances are available in the establishment of larger livestock farms with ample room for free grazing, as required by the European Union. The area is a privately owned recreational site zone that is to be used for further developments in the tourism sector.
Its area of km2 is home to 11, inhabitants, equating to 39 inhabitants per km2 census. The area suffers from a depopulation rate of Rekovac covers an area of km2, which represents The municipality comprises 32 settlements that are home to 13, inhabitants.
The average population density in the municipality is 37 inhabitants per km2. The total length of roads in the municipality is km, of which km is modern roadway. Based on this data, it can be concluded that the Municipality of Rekovac is a typically agricultural municipality.
The municipality has no medium or large companies. Municipal authorities are in favour of the development of the SME and broader private sector. The greatest number of workers is employed in the processing industry, followed by the wholesale and retail trade sector, health and social work and education. The structure of the agricultural area is characterized by a large proportion of arable land - covering 12, The greatest percentage of local workers are employed in the processing sector The agricultural sector contributes the most to the local GDP, with branches such as fruit farming, viticulture, livestock breeding, crop farming and landscape gardening.
Barley and oats are also significant components in terms of improving the quality of animal fodder. There is also a plan to adapt the Dubinje military airport for civilian needs in the coming period, thus facilitating tourist arrivals. The municipality is situated between two rail corridors: Belgrade - Bar and Belgrade - Kraljevo - Skopje.
Rail lines through the municipality cover a total distance of eight kilometres and lead to the Kumanica border crossing with Montenegro. In , average monthly income per capita was 40, dinars. It is worth noting that there is great potential for the development of livestock breeding — as a base for the development of the meat and dairy industry — that is currently insufficiently realised.
Accordingly, the municipality has great prospects for the development of rural tourism, based on its preserved and unspoilt nature, healthy food, friendly people and numerous archaeological sites. Sjenica has the cleanest rivers in Serbia. The municipality offers great opportunities for the development of tourism, especially winter sports.
Municipal authorities provide assistance to prospective investors seeking to obtain required documentation. It is only 46 km from the Serbian capital and covers a total area of Smederevo has around , inhabitants. Smederevo has one of the most developed economies of any cities in Serbia.
The Municipality of Smederevo has 55, employed workers. Most industrial activity in the municipality takes place within local industrial zones. The US Steel industrial zone is seven kilometres southeast of the city. It covers an area of hectares and includes high value technoeconomic and spatial characteristics. The same site is home to manufacturer of industrial and medical gases, company Messer-Tehnogas.
The West Industrial zone is situated to the west of the city centre and is the traditional zone of the old for ge — covering an area of 21 ha — and also has mono structure characteristics. According to the census, Smederevska Palanka has 56, inhabitants 26, in the town itself , which is 6. It has 17 rural and 4 urban settlements, covering an area of km2. Almost all economic fields are represented in the municipality: industry, agriculture, construction, haulage, commerce, catering, handicrafts, housing-communal activities, financial services, scientific research, etc.
Smederevska Palanka has a long industrial tradition, which was at its peak between and More than half of the total number of employees during that period were employed in industry. Today, the two largest fac- Most industrial activity in the municipality takes place within local industrial zones The municipality is planning to change the purpose of the zone to tourist-cultural content.
The Godomin Field Industrial Zone, to the northeast of the city, is divided into several sub zones. At present, a project to fit infrastructure for a new industrial zone 84ha is underway, while the local government has adopted a detailed regulatory plan and the resolution of property issues and projects are in progress, with the support of the National Investment Plan. Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in the area of the municipality of Smederevo.
Smederevska Palanka has 65 registered industrial companies with approximately 7, employees. Agriculture comprises one of the major areas of the economic structure of the municipality, though the presence of the Centre for Vegetable Crops — a leading scientific institution in Serbia — has not facilitated the faster development of this branch in Smederevska Palanka. However, stockbreeding has achieved outstanding individual results. Potential tourism development could be linked to the local mineral water spring, which is deemed to be among the highest quality mineral water springs in Europe, due to its richness in selenium.
Sokobanja is one of the oldest tourist destinations in Serbia, with abundant natural resources thermo-mineral springs and attractive geological features , protected countryside, a healthy environment, rich cultural and historical heritage and a favourable climate. Land plots that are available to investors include: There is a location stretching across A further 3.
Those hiring in excess of 80 workers over a period of five years and planning to build sports facilities will be allowed to lease municipal land free of charge for a year period. Those investing more than a million euros or hiring over workers are exempt from paying the land development fee. It also covers part of the Vlasinska plateau. Surdulica covers square kilometres and includes 41 settlements with an average size of In the municipality had 22, inhabitants and the town of Surdulica was home to 10, Surdulica is located within the network of main roads in Serbia.
Approximately Covering an area of square kilometres, the municipality includes 38 villages and the administrative centre of Svrljig town. According to the census, the municipality has This municipality recorded the lowest average earnings per employee in It is situated in a valley between the ranges of the nearby Svrljig Mountains, which is separated by the River Svrljig Timok. This marked the commencement of activity aimed at preparing for the arrival of in- in the building construction and Most independent shops are privately owned and the average number of employees is two workers per company.
The ownership structure is extremely favourable, with a high percentage of land in private ownership: In order to improve the present economic situation in Svrljig, the Ministry for the National Investment Plan decided to invest more than 34 million dinars in the development of municipal and environmental infrastructure in the municipality.
These funds will be invested in the reconstruction of a water supply network and the city landfill, while 15 million dinars has been set aside to fund the reconstruction and construction of roads in the municipality, which is one of the 40 most undeveloped parts of Serbia. Agriculture is the most important economic sector in Svrljig. It relies on livestock breeding, farming, fruit growing, beekeeping and gathering medicinal plants.
Education is accomplished through a regular and professionally focused high school. The Resava and Velika Morava rivers both run through the municipality. The Municipality of Svilajnac has 22 towns and villages and covers an area of square kilometres. According to the latest census, the municipality has over 30, inhabitants, with almost a half living in the town of Svilajnac and half residing in smaller settlements.
ECONOMY Agriculture is the main economic activity in the municipality, with the land configuration and favourable micro climate suitable for all agricultural branches. The population of the town itself is more engaged in retail trade, catering and other service-related activities. According to the National Employment Service, there are 1, unemployed jobseekers in the municipality, of varying ages and education profiles. The zone covers 26 hectares and could be extended further.
It has complete infrastructure electricity, water, sewage, gas, telecommunication lines and close to million dinars was spent on building this infrastructure. Such co-operation has already been established with two for eign companies: car parts manufacturer Reum GmbH from Germany and the Dutch-Swiss fruit and vegetable processing company Koeleman Foods, which operates in Serbia under the name Tri-Stan Fresh Produce.
Reum is currently building its production facilities, while Tri- Stan Fresh Produce has already launched production activities. They are currently constructing a distribution facility that will store vegetables bought from local producers with whom the company co-operates.
A total of 15 hectares of land is available at the Veliko Polje Industrial Zone. Aside from greenfield investment, there are also a number of possibilities to make brownfield investments at facilities of for mer industrial giants like VIS, Beko and printing company 1. Maj, et al.
In this case, local authorities are willing to offer prospective investors various grace periods on the payment of utility taxes. Aside from a favourable geographical position and the proximity of Corridor 10, Svilajnac also boasts an efficient local administration able to issue an investor with required permits in the shortest time possible between 15 and 30 days. It occupies an area of square kilometres and has , inhabitants. This is due to a long tradition of entrepreneurship, trade and industry, coupled with a successfully implemented privatisation process and for eign investments.
The support provided by the local authorities is also an advantage, as are simplified procedures. The zone occupies an area of hectares, hectares of which owned by the municipality. Municipal authorities are obliged to provide access to complete infrastructure needs sewage, water supply system, gas distribution network, high voltage electricity and paved roads within the deadlines stated in contracts concluded with investors. The local municipal assembly has authored a detailed regulatory plan for the Northwest Industrial Zone, which envisages building industrial railway tracks to enable potential investors to use rail transport, in addition to roads and rivers.
The zone is linked to the Belgrade-Zagreb motorway via the regional road to Sremska Mitrovica. The zone is 24 kilometres from the motorway. It covers an area of km2 along the border with Macedonia, while it also borders the municipalities of Bosilegrad, Vranje and Bujanovac. At its peak is the Church of the Holy Virgin, which dates from the fourteenth century.
The council is developing fruit growing, vegetable and potato production and the gathering of berries and herbs; honey production and the domestic cottage industry about tonnes of wild blueberries and about tonnes of mushrooms are reaped annually in the municipality ; the Municipality already has good experience in cattle and sheep farming. The municipality has about 13, hectares of for estland — mostly beech, oak and pine — that offers good potential for the development of for estry and wood products: the production of pallets, floor coverings beech and oak , the production of briquettes and laminates.
The development of industry is based on existing industrial capacities and dynamic of ownership changes. The municipality also has mineral resources and follows research reserves and economic justification for exploitation.
Canadian company Dundee is already working in the municipality to this end. The municipality has about registered companies which operate outside the municipality and use the benefits offered by municipality. Municipal taxes in the area are very favourable compared to other municipalities in the Republic, while all necessary documents for construction can be obtained within 30 days. The Development. When it comes to agriculture, the veloped primary agricultural production.
The production of granu- Prva petoletka facililated products, macroty has around 35 hecbiotic food, medicines tares of land avail- and dietary suppleable and is ideal for ments based on honey metal processing. The and medicinal herbs, Zapadna Morava fa- as well as rural, huntcility has five hecing and culture-related tares of land available tourism.
All roads that pass through the municipality are important transport routes. It stretches across square kilometres and has 30, inhabitants. The dominant economic branches here are furniture production, wood processing, agriculture, dairy production, construction and retail trade. Provided a prospective investor has already obtained other required documentation, a building permit will be issued in just one day.
So far, the biggest investors in the municipality have been retail, tourism and catering companies, as well as stone and metal processing enterprises and agriculture companies. It is within close proximity of Belgrade, giving it a geostrategic advantage over other municipalities in the Kolubara County. And yet, people do communicate, with varying degrees of success though, and children do manage to learn copious numbers of words from their parents and other people in their surrounding, and it is possible to translate meanings from one language into another, which means that there is intersubjective language and there are intersubjective symbolic forms in general.
How can these facts be reconciled? A set of such elements can then be called objective experience, since it is independent from any individual subject. Lack of fresh air in a stuffy room, for example, will not cease to exist when any of the people therein leave the room. Objective experience, for example, can also be that of seeing a certain object red, when it indeed reflects light under the millimicron wave length. In such a case, subjective experience of a colour-blind person would probably diverge away from the objective one.
Objective experience, however, is not the same as an empirically based scientific postulation. It should be, for as long as we forsake our partialities. And partialities are not an easy thing to forsake. We can see it in the example of the recent wars in the territories of former Yugoslavian republics, during the first half of the nineties, where the objective experience of the opposing sides, i. How can three different experiences be objective?
Is there not, after all, an ultimate objectivity which can serve as the criterion for ascertaining which experience is objective and which is not? It transpires, then, that there is a certain discrepancy between the two notions of objectivity of meaning.
In order to avoid the confusion which can ensue from that kind of perplexity, it is only logical to operate with two, rather than one, terms. One should differentiate between the degree of experience objectivity and the degree of experience adequacy. Whichever of the different types of objectivity one contemplates, it is bound to be expressed in the medium of language, and that is what gives language such a mighty leverage in establishing both experiential and empirical truths.
The potency of language in the creation of alleged factuality is particularly used in the art of persuasion. People have a proclivity to overestimate words. A skilful orator can misuse this to covertly bend the truth to an extent that it takes a totally different turn. It's often much easier for people to believe someone's testimony as opposed to understanding complex data and variation across a continuum.
Or you can cherry-pick a data cluster to suit your argument, or find a pattern to fit a presumption. Or the claim that a compromise such a convenient word , or a middle point, between two extremes must be the truth. Much of the time the truth does indeed lie between two extreme points, but this can bias our thinking: sometimes a thing is simply untrue and a compromise of it is also untrue. Half way between truth and a lie is still a lie. For example: Milan said that vaccinations caused autism in children, but his scientifically well-read friend Suzana said that this claim had been debunked and proven false.
Their friend Vesna offered a compromise that vaccinations must cause some autism, just not all autism!? Another example of the truth bending process through the faculty of language can often be observed in currently ubiquitous post-truth pontification: You simply move the goalposts or make up an exception when your claim was shown to be false. People are prone to having a foolish aversion to being wrong.
Rather than appreciate the benefits of being able to change one's mind through better understanding, many will invent ways to cling to old beliefs. One of the most common ways that people do this is to post-rationalize a reason why what they thought to be true must remain to be true.
It's usually very easy to find a reason to believe something that suits us, and it requires integrity and genuine honesty with oneself to examine one's own beliefs and motivations without falling into the trap of justifying our existing ways of seeing ourselves and the world around us.
For example, Milena Kudra claimed to be psychic, but when her abilities were tested under proper scientific conditions, they magically disappeared. Milena explained this by saying that one had to have faith in her abilities for them to work! In similar situations, some resort to a different tactic and redefine the burden of proof saying that it lies not with the person making the claim, but with someone else to disprove.
The burden of proof lies with someone who is making a claim, and is not upon anyone else to disprove. The inability, or disinclination, to disprove a claim does not render that claim valid, nor give it any credence whatsoever. It is important, however, to note that we can never be certain of anything, and so we must assign value to any claim based on the available evidence, and to dismiss something on the basis that it hasn't been proven beyond all doubt is also fallacious reasoning.
For example, Anna declares that a double-decker bus is, at this very moment, in orbit around the Sun between the Earth and Mars, and that because no one can prove her wrong, her claim is therefore a valid one!? Another way to blur the discerning vision between experience and veracity is the so-called appeal to popularity. The flaw in this argument is that the popularity of an idea has absolutely no bearing on its validity.
For example, Stevan rose from his chair, approached Todor and asked him to explain how so many people could believe in leprechauns if they're only a silly old superstition!? Or you may assume that one part of something has to be applied to all, or other, parts of it; or that the whole must apply to its parts. Often when something is true for the part it does also apply to the whole, or vice versa, but the crucial difference is whether there exists good evidence to show that this is the case.
Because we observe consistencies in things, our thinking can become biased so that we presume consistency to exist where it does not. For example, Martin was a precocious child and had a liking for logic. He reasoned that atoms are invisible, and that he was made of atoms and therefore invisible too.
Unfortunately, despite his pensive skills, he lost the game of hide and seek. Sometimes, in order to arrive at the truth one must think outside of the box, particularly when presented with two alternative states as the only possibilities, when in fact more possibilities exist. Binary, black-or-white thinking doesn't allow for the many different variables, conditions, and contexts in which there would exist more than just the two possibilities put forth.
It frames the argument misleadingly and obscures rational, honest debate. Example: Whilst rallying support for his plan to fundamentally undermine citizens' rights, the Supreme Leader told the people they were either on his side, or they were on the side of the enemy. Or you can misrepresent someone's argument to make it easier to attack. By exaggerating, misrepresenting, or just completely fabricating someone's argument, it is much easier to present your own position as being reasonable.
For example, after Marko said that we should put more money into health and education, Ivan responded by saying that he was surprised that Marko hates our country so much that he wants to leave it defenceless by cutting military spending!?
History is a typical example of academic disagreement in different systems. And it need not be history of national conflicts even though it might be taken as an epitome of academic disparity ; even the geological development of our planet which is supposed to be devoid of any political connotation or abstraction is subject to a fierce debate between creationists and evolutionists. There are educational institutions which teach children that the world is only six thousand years old pursuant to the Bible — contrary to others who claim it to be thirteen billion years old.
There is a widespread movement to remove Darwinism from schools. It is entirely possible, however, that the opinion of a person or institution of authority is wrong; therefore the authority that such a person or institution holds does not have any intrinsic bearing upon whether their claims are true or not. For example, not able to defend his position that evolution "isn't true" Stevan says that he knows a scientist who also questions evolution. Similar examples of misuse of the misbalance between experience and axioms channelled through the facility of language are numerous but the purpose of the paper is not to list them all.
They serve merely as an example of how camouflaged the thin edge between veracity and falsity can be. Translatorial Implications John Sinclair proposes that there are two basic ways of constructing utterances in natural language use One way, governed by what Sinclair calls the "Open-choice principle," builds up or analyses an utterance word by word.
Each word is freely chosen and displays the same semantic properties as it does in isolation. This, according to Sinclair, is how utterance construction is viewed in "standard" lexical semantics. The obligatory-optional distinction is an indispensable one. Grammatical knowledge should also enable the language user to distinguish between optional and obligatory forms in the language, those matters that have to be expressed as such and those that have alternatives.
This kind of knowledge is second nature to all of us, as far as our mother tongue is concerned. It may be very deeply rooted in a person with a good command of another language but they will never be able to take it for granted in the same way. In any event, nobody has perfect control of any language Pinchuck Even the most abstract symbols of portentous scientific theories entail in their meaning explicit elements of experience by implying that under certain conditions there could be some real objects which are not circumscribed by their implicit meaning.
In that denotative function, they can even lead us to false conclusions and make us rely on precarious predictions which might not be delivered in the future. That would only mean, however, that they are inaccurate, and not without meaning, either denotative or connotative. Even loan words are not a guarantee of keeping the number of words equal — take tennis player and teniser in English and Serbian respectively for example.
One can hardly call such a structure complex or complicated, and yet it is sufficiently complicated to show that dictionary translation of this type tends to become very cumbersome and impractical, albeit the process itself remains at a rather simple level. Even the most linguistically innocent people have an intuition that meaning is intrinsically bound up with individual words. While such an assumption seriously underestimates the complexity of word meaning, there is some merit in its postulation.
Languages do have words, at least partly, since in the cultures they are supposed to serve, the meanings that such words entail need to be communicated — which provides an explanation in terms of their motivation Cruse It is therefore unrealistic to expect to find equivalent ways of expressing observations and expressions in two languages as a matter of course Baker Lefevere noted that much of the theorizing about language was based on translation practice between European languages and pointed out that problems of the accessibility of linguistic and cultural codes intensifies once we move out beyond Western boundaries.
In his later work, he expanded his concern with the metaphorics of translation to an enquiry into what he termed the conceptual and textual grids that constrain both writers and translators Bassnett This flexibility however can only go so far, and if the translator bends the words, their meaning or congruence too much they will tend to refract.
Perhaps Anuradha Dingawaney was right to say that translation from one culture into another involves varying degrees of violence 4. This idea of translation as refraction rather than reflection was first developed by Lafevere offering a more complex model than the old idea of translation as a mirror of the original. Inherent in his view of translation as refraction was a rejection of any linear notion of the translation process.
The underlying premise here is that the illusion of equivalence should actually reduce cognitive effort at the point of text use. Consequently, if translators are aware of the way equivalence works in reception, they can reduce and direct their effort accordingly. In other words, the illusion of equivalence may well enable a very efficient use of resources Pym The deeper the analysis, the more likely it is to take us into the lexical realm or even into the realm of the situation Grant As a reaction against such vagueness and contradiction, numerous other approaches available as tools for the facilitation and improvement of the accuracy of translation, such as relevance theory Gutt 46 or descriptive translation Toury 68 , began to appear in the second half of the twentieth century as attempts to redefine the concepts of "literal" and "free" translation in operational terms, to "describe" meaning in scientific terms, and to put together systematic taxonomies of translation phenomena.
Perhaps the best description of the slippery path of relying on word-for- word translation is that expressed by Culler saying that if language were simply a nomenclature for a set of universal concepts, it would be easy to translate from one language to another If language were like this the task of learning a new language would also be much easier than it is.
But anyone who has attempted either of these tasks has acquired a vast amount of direct proof that languages are not nomenclatures, that the concepts of one language may differ radically from those of another Each language articulates or organizes the world differently. Languages do not simply name existing categories, they articulate their own.
When this discrepancy of the object perception and the function of its language sign is clearly formulated, there is always an imminent tendency of its elimination in one of the following ways: a certain uses are deemed incorrect; b necessary corrections are introduced in the perception of the object to bring it in line with the use of the symbol; c we become cognizant of the fact that another symbol has come into circulation to mark the same object.
In this case, another process commences simultaneously, one that subsequently leads toward making distinctions between the two meanings. Conclusion We always understand each other if the apparatus that analyses our sensations is the same. If the experiences of human kind were all different, the meanings of their symbols would also be different, but they are not Sanders Peirce This is particularly conspicuous in the process of meaning transposition, such as translation.
Without language, the scarce and identical elements of experience of individual members of a community would remain marooned and incoherent. Even the purely scientific genres abound in personal takes on subject matters. There are, however, symbols which have no constant liaison with experience. In Other Words. USA and Canada: Routledge, Bassnett, Susan.
Translation Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Culler, Jonathan. Gutt, E-A. Translation and Relevance. Korzybski, Alfred. Pinchuck, Isadore. Scientific and Technical Translation. London: Andre Deutsch Ltd, Pym, Anthony. Exploring Translation Theories. Sanders Peirce, Charles. Collected Papers. Cambridge: Cambridge Universtiy Press, Sinclair, John et al. Toury, Gideon. Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond. After meeting John Tradescant, a famous botanist and gardener, Jordan, who was found in the Thames and named after the Jordan River, becomes obsessed with travelling, exploration and discovery.
He accompanies Tradescant on his journeys across the world in search of exotic plants. At the same time, Jordan does a lot of daydreaming and mind-travelling. Besides, since Jordan and his mother have their twentieth-century counterparts, it can be said that they also travel through time.
This paper will explore the different ways of travelling described in this novel with the purpose of discovering to what extent it follows the conventions of the travel genre in general. It will also examine travelling in the context of the Enlightenment period and colonial expansion of the British Empire.
Key words: travelling, discovery, exploration, space, time, quest, gender. Introduction Since many books written by Jeanette Winterson are concerned with journeys, it comes as no surprise that her novel Sexing the Cherry , which deals with her favourite topic — gender roles and relations — is heavily based on this metaphor. On the one hand, since travelling and exploring have always been considered a male dominion, the male characters in this novel are those who travel across the world and get the opportunity to become heroes.
On the other hand, women are expected to stay home and wait for their men to return, which is the main occupation of the female characters, especially the Dog Woman. In addition, since they are banned from travelling physically, they are forced to travel in their mind by using their imagination or by dreaming. Even the main time frame of the novel, seventeenth-century England or, to be more precise, the beginning of the period of Enlightenment, was chosen to demonstrate the predominantly masculine desire to explore and map the world, collect and name different specimens, obtain knowledge, and improve science.
In the novel, Jordan is the man who brings this pineapple after travelling across the world for thirteen years in search of exotic plants and wonders. Although their work was connected with the exploitation of natural resources of other countries and could eventually bring profit, their primary goal was knowledge.
This presented an attempt to make order out of the chaos of nature and the chaos of earlier botany Pratt Pratt describes their androgynous character in the following passage: Unlike such antecedents as the conquistador and the hunter, the figure of the naturalist-hero often has a certain impotence or androgyny about him; often he portrays himself in infantile or adolescent terms […] The naturalist-heroes are not, however, women — no world is more androcentric than that of natural history […] The paternal structure of discipleship is overwhelmingly evident.
Eve is the garden whom he in his unobjectionable way plunders and possesses. In , while sailing his boat, ten-year-old Jordan meets John Tradescant on the banks of the boiling Thames. Tradescant tells him about his journeys and the post of gardener to the King, which he inherited from his dead father.
After giving Jordan some sailing lessons, Tradescant departs, leaving the Dog Woman with the realisation that her son will abandon her. In , after the outbreak of the Civil War, Tradescant comes to take Jordan to Wimbledon, where he wants the boy to help him to lay out a garden for Queen Henrietta. Although Charles II offers to make Jordan a lord and to equip him with a ship, Jordan declines because he just wants to sit by the river and watch the boats, which many people interpret as a sign of madness.
After he nearly dies from the plague, and after London is almost destroyed in the Great Fire, Jordan decides to leave England with his mother for good. First, Jordan rather travels in his mind than around the globe, which is considered a more feminine characteristic. Then, he is more flexible when it comes to looking and interpreting the world. He does not have firm beliefs and questions pretty much everything.
He also knows that he is never going to be like Tradescant because he feels that his own nature is different: For Tradescant being a hero comes naturally. His father was a hero before him. He wants to bring rarities and he does […] When we get home, men and women will crowd round us and ask us what happened and every version we tell will be a little more fanciful. Heroes are immune. They have wide shoulders and plenty of hair and wherever they go a crowd gathers.
Mostly they enjoy the company of other men, although attractive women are part of their reward. When Nicolas becomes a naval cadet, his ultimate goal becomes to sail around the world, taking the same route as Sir Francis Drake in the Golden Hind. Nevertheless, Nicolas does not fit the mould of a typical explorer. Like Jordan, he often looks at the stars and wanders off.
He also doubts that there are any real places left to travel since we have already been everywhere, and, unlike his colonial colleagues, he does not expect any benefit from his journeys. Jack believes it to be a hobby rather than a career and predicts that Nicolas will turn into a loser after he leaves the Navy. He gets almost angry when Nicolas tells him that his plan to sail alone around the world will not even result in breaking some record.
Travelling Imaginary Places The fact that the two male protagonists possess many characteristics of female travellers becomes more obvious in their mind-travelling. This especially refers to Jordan, who is more interested in recording the journeys he might have made. On most occasions, Jordan simply gets lost in reverie for a while and dreams about strange places until somebody snaps their fingers and forces him to return to reality.
These episodes usually contain elements of magic realism, whose most common characteristics are: the mingling and juxtaposition of the realistic and the fantastic or bizarre, skilful time shifts, convoluted and even labyrinthine narratives and plots, miscellaneous use of dreams, myths and fairy stories, expressionistic and even surrealistic description, arcane erudition, the element of surprise or abrupt shock, the horrific and the inexplicable.
Since the clouds of these angry and foolish words attack the cleaners and bite off their mops, this example of magic realism can be interpreted as a warning to people to be careful about what they say to each other because they will not be able to take back their words and will have to deal with the consequences.
In this city, Jordan finds a house with the smell of wild strawberries and no floors, where all the furniture is suspended on racks from the ceiling, and there is a huge pit at the bottom. The family who live here move by using ropes and, while being their guest, Jordan sees for the first time a woman whose face is a sea voyage, a dancer who balances on the ropes and escapes through a window.
Jordan starts his search for this mysterious woman, whose lightness of body and acrobatic skills are traditionally associated with freedom from any kind of restraint. Jordan is here informed that the Twelve Dancing Princesses from the famous story live down the road and, thinking that these dancing sisters might know his mysterious ballerina, he decides to visit them. He listens to their life stories, which is probably the most fantastical part of the novel because Jordan here speaks with the characters from a proper fairy-tale.
These stories subvert the traditional fairy-tale plots by giving the power to the princesses to escape from their suffocating marriages and their cruel, philandering, or unloving husbands, and find happiness in various unconventional unions, which emphasises the freedom of action or will. They also reveal to him that their youngest sister Fortunata is actually the woman he has been looking for but, since they do not know what has become of her after she left her princely groom at the altar, Jordan has to continue with his search.
The following fantastical location is the city whose entire population has been wiped out by love three times in a row and, as a result of this, everything connected with love, such as music, smiles or mandolins, has been forbidden and put in the Museum of Love. Not feeling ready to be deprived of love again, the citizens unanimously agree to be put to death.
The strict rules of this city remind Jordan of the Puritans in his own country, who publicly reject everything connected with love, but privately take part in the most repugnant orgies. From here, Jordan rows to an island where he finds a house in which a woman teaches other women to dance.
It turns out that she is the girl from his dreams. Again, by deciding not to accompany Jordan to England, Fortunata demonstrates her independence and freedom to make her own choices. Unlike Jordan and Nicolas, who, as men, are allowed to go everywhere and daydream only in their free time, the two female protagonists, especially the Dog Woman, can only travel in their minds.
But does it matter if the place cannot be mapped as long as I can still describe it? When they leave London in the end, the Dog Woman looks at her son and for a moment thinks that she sees a slight and strong woman standing beside him. When she tries to call out, she realises that she has no voice.
Then the woman vanishes and there is nothing next to Jordan but empty space. The roof tiles, the bricks, the lagging, the plumbing, all were subject to my rhythm. When she grows up, she loses a lot of weight and becomes an attractive woman but she still sees herself as big. She realises that she has an alter ego, her patron saintess, a huge and powerful woman whom she summons when she feels herself disappearing. She sometimes dreams about having a home, a lover, some children, but she knows it will not work because she is still a monster inside, and this monster will eventually break out of her and be discovered.
As an environmentalist, she spends a lot of time by a polluted river, which, she believes, causes her hallucinations and makes her imagine things. Her rage is now directed at world leaders, mostly men, who would do anything to make money, even if it means destroying the environment and the Third World countries.
When she gets really angry, she imagines herself becoming her alter ego, this enormous virago of a woman, and going to the places like the World Bank or the Pentagon and putting in her huge sack men in Gucci suits and generals with their medals.
They protest, threaten, and scream, but in vain. She forces all the fat ones to go on a diet and attend compulsory training in feminism and ecology. What we can conclude from this part is that the male characters go on imaginary journeys because they need a break from their lives of heroic deeds and great expectations.
They also feel different from other men and, by using their imagination, they try to get in touch with their feminine side. At the same time, they feel as if something is missing in their everyday existence and need to complete it by searching for something else, something more.
On the other hand, when the female characters travel in their mind, they actually travel out of their body, the body that does not meet the expectations of their society. They feel trapped and frustrated, and start imagining that they are somebody else and that they do the things they are not normally allowed to do. In addition, because they feel confused about their identity, this journeying is a form of quest whose main purpose is getting to know oneself better.
However, for both sexes, dreams present a much-desired freedom. Travelling in Time Every journey, be it real or imaginary, takes time. We have already established that in this novel Winterson challenges the main ideas of the Enlightenment period, which was the age of reason, science, and laws. They perceived space as definite and time as linear, and thought that there was no other way of looking at this.
However, this novel is structured on the principle that time is not linear but rather cyclical, which basically means that people and things repeat themselves and that nothing actually changes. This leads to the conclusion that the structure of the universe can only be understood in terms of a single four-dimensional continuum, space-time. Besides theoretical physics, Winterson employs here the notion extensively argued by feminist theory that time itself is highly gendered, which basically means that there is male time — linear, commodified, clock time; and female time — cyclical and reproductive.
Making this time the only objective one, concludes Hughes, distracts our attention from the multitude of times that exist. But we do not move through time, time moves through us. This is confirmed once more at the end of the novel, when Jordan and his mother leave London.
Because of the idea that we can exist at several places at the same time, it is possible that Jordan and Nicolas Jordan, as well as the Dog Woman and the environmentalist, are basically the same person, living in two different centuries, meeting the same people, having the same desires, fears, hopes, and memories, as well as the awareness of having lived in some other time.
It is even possible that Nicolas Jordan has the feeling that he knows the environmentalist even before he meets her. Jordan wonders whether his childhood happened. He says that he must believe it did, but he has no proof of it. He remembers things but, like his mother, he is a fantasist and a liar, so he cannot trust either of them.
And it is common knowledge that people often forget things which did. Similarly, having alter egos essentially means having multiple identities, and this is another method Winterson uses to break the Enlightenment unified subject. All characters are aware of this. The environmentalist claims that if she has a spirit or a soul, it will not be single but multiple; it will not be confined but free; and it may inhabit numerous changing decaying bodies in the future and in the past Winterson When it comes to our experience of time, we can differentiate between subjective and objective time or between an internal and external clock.
Jordan also notices these contradictory certainties: our outward lives are governed by the seasons and the clock […] our inward lives are governed by something much less regular — an imaginative impulse cutting through the dictates of daily time, and leaving us free to ignore the boundaries of here and now and pass like lightning along the coil of pure time.
This makes the measuring of time very difficult. The environmentalist has been alone by the polluted river so long that she cannot measure time in the units she is used to. She thinks that time has mutinied and run wild and concludes that she does not measure time — time measures her Winterson My own experience is different.
For her, time has slowed down just like our pulses slow or race under certain conditions. In his opinion, artists and gurus are such people. Their goal is to prevent everyday distractions from taking up their energy. Monks and contemplatives do this by withdrawing from the world and concentrating, which results in delirium, meditation, or out-of-body experiences. On the surface, her novel resembles traditional travel and adventure books because it mostly presents the journeys of an Englishman in the period of the colonial expansion of the British Empire.
However, since her main character Jordan is not a typical macho adventurer or explorer but primarily a botanist and gardener, his journeys are unconventional. In addition, Jordan finds his imaginary journeys into magical cities and fairylands equally important and believable, which basically means that it is not always easy to distinguish between reality and dreams.
Similarly, by creating two pairs of counterparts who live in different centuries, Winterson explores the idea of time travelling. However, as she rejects the traditional notions of time and space, it turns out that her characters do not travel through time but actually have multiple identities existing simultaneously. By challenging these conventions, Winterson simply paves the way for a more thorough examination of other conventions she finds much closer to her heart — gender roles and relations.
Her final message is that men and women do not have to assume the roles imposed on them by society because these roles are also social constructs and, as such, they are neither real nor permanent. References: Bassnett, Susan. Peter Hulme and Tim Youngs. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Cuddon, J. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, Hughes, Christina.
Key Concepts in Feminist Theory and Research. London: Sage, Hugh Stevens. Mills, Sara. London: Routledge, Moore, Lisa. Elisabeth Grosz and Elspeth Probyn. Morrison, Jago. Contemporary Fiction. Pratt, Mary Louise. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. Winterson, Jeanette.
Sexing the Cherry. Those, who are both hosts and guests to each other, become involved in the devastating conflict during the First World War which leads to the expulsion of the Turkish Christians to Greece and to the evacuation of the Greek Muslims to Turkey. Before the war, the inhabitants of this small town live in some kind of liminal space, somewhere in between Turkish and Greek culture. Key words: guest, host, arrivant, conditional hospitality, absolute hospitality, language of hospitality.
In his discussions of hospitality Derrida tackles the following issues: conditional and absolute hospitality, the relationship between the host and the guest and the language of hospitality. In contrast to this ordinary or general hospitality that entails following the rules, abiding by laws and fulfilling certain conditions, Derrida defines absolute hospitality as follows: To put it in different terms, absolute hospitality requires that I open up my home and that I give not only to the foreigner, but to the absolute, unknown, anonymous other, and that I give place to them, that I let them come, that I let them arrive, and take place in the place I offer them, without asking of them either reciprocity entering into a pact or even their names.
The ipse gives up security, authority, and property and promises benevolence. The guest becomes the host. Thus, absolute hospitality is never possible in conjunction with indivisible sovereignty. Therefore, it can be said that absolute hospitality is both possible and impossible.
It exists as a concept and one can strive to reach that kind of hospitality. But it is impossible to realize the concept of absolute hospitality since its realization requires fulfilment of many conditions, which are not always easy or possible to fulfil, although absolute hospitality itself goes beyond any condition, duty or law Westmoreland 4.
Derrida writes: One does not expect the event of whatever, of whoever comes, arrives, and crosses the threshold — the immigrant, the emigrant, the guest, or stranger. But if the new arrivant who arrives is new, one must expect — without waiting for him or her, without expecting it — that he does not simply cross a given threshold.
Such an arrivant affects the very experience of the threshold, whose possibility he thus brings to light before one even knows whether there has been an invitation, a call, a nomination, or a promise Verheissung, Heissen, etc. What we could here call the arrivant, the most arrivant among all arrivants, the arrivant par excellence, is whatever, whoever, in arriving, does not cross a threshold separating two identifiable places, the proper and the foreign, the proper of the one and the proper of the other.
For some time, the inhabitants of this small town lived in some kind of liminal space, somewhere in between Turkish and Greek culture. The Muslims and the Christians let each other into their respective homes and shared with each other the sovereignty of their homes. Thus, at the same time, they all became hosts and guests or arrivants. Therefore, they affected the threshold they crossed and the family life in the home they entered. In other words, the arrivant or the guest with his arrival redefines the home and family space and family life he encounters upon crossing the threshold.
Their readiness to share the sovereignty of their homes with their neighbours created the possibility of absolute hospitality. Their lives were intertwined. The guest easily became the host and vice versa. They were, at the same time, hosts and guests to each other. This division of sovereignty worked well in the novel up to a certain point. The hospitality that Muslims and Christians extended to each other had the potential to become absolute, but they never realized that potential because some acts of violence started to appear.
These acts were done by some Muslims and some Christians, who were keen to establish sovereignty over their home and to mark its boundaries strictly. But they were not ready to share that sovereignty with their neighbours. Derrida gives one explanation why the host insists on having authority and sovereignty over his home. First, there was verbal violence. They would call us "Turks" in order to insult us, at the time when we called ourselves "Ottomans" or "Osmanlis. Christian schoolmaster Leonidas Efendi thought he should assert sovereignty over his home and hold authority over the Muslims.
Derrida further explains the relationship between the host and the guest: the hote who receives the host , the one who welcomes the invited or received the hote the guest , the welcoming hote who considers himself the owner of the place, is in truth a hote received in his own home. He receives the hospitality that he offers in his own home; he receives it from his own home — which, in the end does not belong to him.
The hote as host is a guest. Here, it should be mentioned that Derrida points out that there is a very fine line between hospitality and hostility just as there is a very thin line between the host and the guest, meaning that hospitality can easily turn into hostility just as the host can easily become the guest or the hostage. The word hospitality derives from the Latin hospes, meaning host, guest or stranger and hospes is formed from hostis, which means stranger or enemy and the word hostile 5 comes from the Latin hostis.
Even during the history of that region the host became the guest in his own home. So, the Christians soon went from being hosts to being hostages of their Turkish neighbours and then from hostages they went to become not so warmly welcomed guests in their new country. In this case, the Greek hosts did it by insulting the newcomers or arrivants. After the deportation of the Christians, some Muslims became hosts in the abandoned Christian houses.
Once, he had been a host who had his home and then he became a hostage of the circumstances which turned him into an outlaw. The Christians became the mirror in which the Muslims could see their own reflection and it showed the Muslims their qualities and their flaws. The Muslims and the Christians in both Turkey and Greece forced each other to become guests and hostages in their own homes.
Here once again, it is clearly seen how difficult it is to determine who is the host and who is the guest. At one point, the Turks were hosts who imposed their language on all the Christians living in that town. In order to receive hospitality, the Christians had to fulfil the condition of learning the Turkish language and the Muslims had to write in Greek letters. By doing it, they lost their singularity, as Derrida calls it, and, in a linguistic sense, there was not much difference between the host and the guest.
Since absolute hospitality should come with no conditions attached, any possibility of having that kind of hospitality was destroyed there. The host wants to define the boundaries of his home so that he can establish his authority and sovereignty within those boundaries. However, there is a fine line that separates the host from the guest and hospitality from hostility. That line sometimes becomes so blurred that the host easily becomes the guest or even the hostage in his own home.
Then, the host turned hostage, who is thrown out of his house, sees his home and family space being destroyed before his eyes. It is shown that at the beginning of the story there was a possibility of absolute hospitality. As the time went by, it was less and less probable that absolute hospitality could be achieved.
In order to exercise sovereignty over his home, the host sometimes felt compelled to resort to violence and the emergence of violence ruled out any possibility of absolute hospitality. Therefore, it could be concluded that absolute hospitality is possible as a concept or idea and one can only strive to realize it.
But, it turns out that the realization of that idea is impossible because the possibility of absolute hospitality turns into hospitality which comes with many conditions. And the people in that town had a tragic flaw because they imagined themselves to be birds, but birds without wings. Karavatuk concluded the story with the following words: But we are always confined to earth, no matter how far we climbed to the high places and flap our arms.
Because we cannot fly, we are condemned to do things that do not agree with us. Because we have no wings we are pushed into struggles and abominations that we did not seek. But, it is worth trying to achieve even the impossible even though in the end people are forced to face the reality and take all the blows that life deals to them. References: De Berniere, Louis. Birds Without Wings. Derrida, Jacques. Stanford: Stanford University, Westmoreland, Mark W. Kritike: An Online Journal of Philosophy vol.
ISSN The paper also juxtaposes the representations of shifting ex-Yugoslav and transnational spaces, as well as the notions of borders, transit visas, and nationalisms on the move. Key words: post-Yugoslav migrant prose by women, Yugoslav-born US American, homeland, father figure, spaces of memory.
Diverse migrant narratives that have become a vital part of contemporary US literary production have both reflected and encouraged transnational trends in American literature and related scholarly work. An increasing number of research publications acknowledge the presence of migrant and diasporic writing by authors who originate from different parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and South America, yet there is a marked absence of ongoing scholarly discussion regarding narratives by South-East European migrant women who have addressed their positions within turbulent geopolitical restructuring of the Balkans in the last several decades.
Reading the novel, however, one discovers an array of themes and preoccupations that delineate not only former Yugoslav contexts, but also offer a larger transnational map of migratory encounters between socialist Yugoslavia as the country of origin and the United States as the host or adopted country. Revisiting ex-Yugoslavia through fragmented recollections of her own childhood and the stories recounted in her ethnically mixed family and wider Yugoslav community, A Bowl of Sour Cherries joins a number of equally underdiscussed migrant novels by writers who were born in the former Yugoslavia and emigrated to the West before or on the brink of its disintegration.
As this definition is broad enough to encompass both biographical and fictional writing in their inevitable diversities, it often includes particular thematic preoccupations that can be identified as common to most of the semi- autobiographical novels by women. In one of his final monologues inspired by various media spins and propaganda, he exhibits his utter disorientation in the world of enumerating pluralisms: Capitalism, socialism, communism! You know why?
Social alchemy! You think history is about progress? Technology helps us do the same thing over and over, better and better. Although such ideology offered him a familiar structure and a promise of continuing safety, particularly within the institution of family, where his authority remained supported by the laws of patriarchy, the father is outlined as a disruptive other whose strangeness lies in his eventual inability to comply with any ideology that has worked against both his national identity and his idealistic convictions about personal and political freedom.
In the process of reclaiming her ambiguous family heritage, the narrator revisits the homeland spaces of Yugoslavia, mapping the signposts that reconstruct the story of a culture envisioned and symbolised by her dying father. The process consists of re crossing spatial and temporal borders between homeland and hostland in an urge to transfer and somehow preserve the remains of the country embodied in the man that once epitomized its brotherhood-and-unity enthusiasm.
The new subject, or a new female cosmopolitan hero whose journey is not linear, becomes constructed through many paradoxes, some of which rely on a deeper and more informed understanding of immigrant suffering and nostalgia Hron 4 , or on exploring the notions of nomadic consciousness, hybridity and tropes of mobility.
Throughout the novel, Franklin openly genders the issues of travel and migration, emphasizing the freedom and ease with which men decide to cross borders, while women are depicted as dependent on men and more grounded. For that reason, the introduction of the narrator who offers her own representations of native and adopted countries, whether they are stereotypical, exceptional, or revolutionary, represents a diversion from the narratives told by the proverbial male immigrant.
The visa episode thus initiates a series of border crossings arranged by the narrator who achieves her agency by mediating between cultures, time periods, and gendered spaces of memory and travelling. Interestingly enough, the very episode illustrates multiple mediations by simply juxtaposing different personal approaches to memory and travel that for a moment lead to estrangement between the narrator and her son.
For that reason, the narrator attempts to detach from American views of her homeland and offer her own presentation of the inevitably fragmented memorabilia. By describing her own uncontrollable emotional state as equivalent to the specific body language of her broader native area, the narrator highlights her border crossing and repeated entrance into Yugoslavia, where she anticipates familiarity with people and culture. The very concept of the body language that maps and preserves the unverbalised space between countries and languages is later followed by other origin-marked concepts that are defined as area-specific and therefore unique.
As the narrator reminds herself of these and similar stereotypical concepts, she temporarily merges with the land of her origin and detaches from her American identity. As she becomes more re- accustomed to her original culture, the narrator is more aware of certain national istic stereotypes prevailing among the peoples of Yugoslavia.
While social inferiority of women may not be recognized as a mainstream stereotype, particularly in cases where gender roles are firmly entrenched in patriarchal values, it is obvious that stereotypes which target national identity influence representations of Balkan women as well. Revisiting Yugoslavia just before its disintegration, the narrator observes the consequences of mutation of stereotypes expressed through scenes of overt hatred among nations and nationalities that up to then shared the common space and uniform ideology.
Her emerging transnational detachment from single or double national identities increasingly clashes with the notion of freedom inherited from her parents and other compatriots who survived the Second World War and participated in the creation of socialist Yugoslavia. As with other migrant novels that deal with former Yugoslav and American lifestyles, the representations of homeland and hostland seem to be equally ambivalent.
The main paradox lies in frequent representations of former Yugoslavs who have chosen to pursue their capitalist American dream regardless of their socialist ideology. While the father continues to live in a complex relationship with his communist and partisan past, the daughter recognizes the importance of moving on from the past, adopting some American strategies of facing traumatic experiences through seeking professional help. Talking heads twist their tongues around the unpronounceable names, unspeakable acts of hatred, rearranging and redistributing American righteousness over footage that makes domestic problems seem laughable.
The question infuriates me. Why is that they think immigrants only leave family behind when they come for their piece of the American pie? Traumatized by the political events and subsequent conflicts that leave her seemingly rootless and without grounding, stability, and safety, the narrator renounces her belonging to any tradition or set of beliefs. The clash between the two homes or cultures she temporarily refuses to identify with leads to her own breakdown, followed by an acute need to recollect and reclaim the fragments of her past.
Mourning her father, the narrator mourns her own concept of Yugoslavia based on her equally rough and idyllic childhood spent with the rest of her family and relatives. But she also mourns the death of her mother and other women silenced in societies that are ruled by patriarchal men.
While the father is buried in Yugoslavia without expected financial support from the state despite his partisan, state-building and diplomatic merits, he is at least formally recognised as a worthy citizen at his state-organized funeral ceremony. In her elaborate representations of women in socialist Yugoslavia, Franklin offers numerous illustrations of silencing women and wives through the acts of physical, mental and emotional abuse that are in many patriarchal settings perceived as acceptable means of controlling women and restricting their movements and social connections outside family.
In the same context, she also voices highly educated and professional women, who become aware of their precarious position in the world that belittles their abilities and efforts. Dalmatian songs of sea, fishing, wine and love are for and about men. Women have little to sing about. A strong potential of female bonding across borders is symbolically represented by the sisterly triad in which the narrator mediates between two Zlatas; her alienated sister who also resides in the US, and her homeland friend from Zagreb.
References: Boym, Svetlana. Susan Rubin Suleiman. Durham and London: Duke UP, Radmila Gorup. Stanford: Stanford UP, Braidotti, Rosi. New York: Columbia UP, Campt, Tina and Deborah A. Coulson, Meg. Franklin, Yelena.
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