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It is hoped that the syllabuses in Part V of this book, pages see also next section of this chapter , will give help in the task of finding a solution to these problems. Or should he proceed in circles, in- cluding something of every sector, or several sectors, in a year?

We have to consider, also, rate of progress: should we attempt to cover approximately equal portions of the syllabus in each year? Usually this would be bad policy. Young pupils entering a labor- atory for the first time look forward with hopeful interest to a new and exciting subject. A more rigorous treatment may follow later, when pupils are ready to welcome it. It is best for the teacher to recognize this, and plan the yearly content of the syllabus accordingly.

Only during the last year before an external examination is taken should the examination requirements be- come of great importance in deciding the syllabus. Do we intend to teach the single subject, Physics, or do we expect to teach General Science, a subject comprising physics, chemistry, biology and possibly other subjects such as astronomy, geology and agriculture? Nowadays most teachers agree that a general science treatment provides the better initial approach.

Later, science separates quite naturally into separate subjects, and such a separation offers the easiest means of progress; this matter is dis- cussed in the next section. Physics as part of General Science To the child entering the laboratory for the first time, the division of science into separate subjects is entirely artificial.

Emphasis should be placed on the child rather than the subject. To him, water and air are simple substances, as they were to the early alchemists; so we should start with a study of water and air, and not embark straight away on the chemical properties of nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen, nor on a generalized study of physical phenomena such as density and pressure. The rate of breathing in man and other animals, a at rest or asleep, b during or after exercise.

The amount of air in a one normal inspiration, 6 one forced inspiration, c one forced expiration. The importance of deep breathing and good ventilation day and night. The respiratory system in man compared with that in an insect, a fish, a bird and a worm: simple dissections to show the lungs, gills and other breathing organs. Is air changed by breathing? Tests of the quality of expired air by using a lighted candle and lime- water. Atmospheric air is not rich in carbon dioxide.

The composition of the air: a The active part of air is called oxygen: preparation and properties of oxygen, and its uses in hospitals and in industry. All living things require oxygen. Animals give up carbon dioxide as a waste product.

Germinating peas, or other seeds, give off carbon dioxide. Seeds do not germinate in absence of oxygen. An animal loses weight in breathing. The rates of breathing of children are taken at rest and then after exercise. The observations are recorded and inferences drawn. The variations in the rates are observed.

The water that enters is measured, using a litre measure, and thus the amount of one normal and one forced inspiration is found. And so on: there are 22 experiments altogether in this section. This is a matter of opinion which can be decided only after considering the conditions at each particular school, the abilities and attainments of the children, their background of everyday knowledge and experi- ence, the available laboratory facilities, the time allowed for the sub- ject, and the skills, interests and knowledge of the science staff con- cerned.

Even when Physics is being taught as a separate subject, the teacher should still seek his examples and illustrations from as wide a field of human activity as possible. A physics teacher using these sylla- buses must decide how much, if any, he can cut out at the higher levels. These are teaching syllabuses based upon the examination syllabuses of various university examining boards. This portion, in brackets, corre- sponds to the level of the scholarship standard required by many universities.

The outermost circle in the diagram, Figure 1, page 12, represents the whole of pre-university Physics. Should a pupil explore the whole of one sector, then the whole of another and so on? Neither of these methods is to be recommended, though the second is better than the first.

Let us suppose the pupil has eight years in which to complete the school course. These suggested time-allowances refer to the more able pupils, the class or classes comprising most of those who will go on to more advanced work; the less capable pupils will require more time. That would be an excellent scheme. The three suggested stages, A, B and C, cannot be entirely repre- sented by the words contained in the three syllabuses of this book.

Change of attitude is implied at stages B and C, as well as increase of factual knowledge. Examination syllabuses The headings of the sections of the three syllabuses under dis- cussion, abstracted and collected together, form examination sylla- buses at each of the three levels. But examinations need exert no other compulsion; so long as we reach the required level we should feel free to plan the course as we think best.

Exactly what is to be done day by day, period by period, in class-room and laboratory, is a matter for the teacher of the subject to decide, in consultation, if need be, with the senior physics teacher at the school. The senior teacher decides what should be taught year by year, or term by term, also in consultation with his juniors. Inspectors, advisers and education departments are able to give advice and assistance in all matters concerned with syllabuses, teaching methods and laboratories; but in the end everything de- pends upon the knowledge, skill and patience of the man in the front line-that is, the individual teacher in class-room and laboratory.

Teaching syllabuses Each section of the syllabuses, given in Part V of this book, also contains: a Some amplification of the headings of each section, in order to show what should be taught on a particular topic, and what may be excluded. Often these are the standard experiments that can be found in any good text-book, and therefore they are not described in full, although in some cases a brief note, or proposed improvement or simplification, is added.

Fuller details of less well-known modifications are given. It is not suggested that all these experiments must be performed, since the total number in the three syllabuses exceeds two hundred. Nevertheless, practical and experimental work is the backbone of good physics teaching, and a considerable proportion of the experiments suggested should be performed by the pupils.

No syllabus is ever perfect, none is so nearly right that it cannot be improved. However experienced we may be, thought should be given every year, every term, every lesson, both to the subject matter taught and to the teaching method. New experiments in teaching technique may not always be successful, but experimentation is, for the teacher as for the pupil, the only way to maintain interest and enthusiasm.

So, let us try out new ideas, make new experiments, profit by both failures and successes and, incident- ally, avoid stagnation and dreary time-serving. The ideal syllabus, the ideal method, are unattainable goals, but let us always keep them before our eyes; at least we can approach them asymptotically! Let us turn back to the list of hopes and aims and precepts on page 8.

How much guidance does this list give in the construction of a syllabus? First, in deciding the material, we have to bear in mind items 4 and 8: the principles the pupils need to know, and the examinations they have to pass. Second, item 7, activity: the syllabus should provide plenty of experimental work; pupils must have busy fingers as well as busy brains. Third, items 2 and 6: the pupils start each new piece of work with a background of previous knowledge, and are then led to seek the solution of a new problem.

Fourth, item 5: we employ a normal scientific method of progress from data to generalization, from facts to laws. Fifth, item 3: pupils and teacher are doing a job together-the teacher must not try to do all the work! And lastly, if we achieve all this, the fulfilment of our first aspiration, the interest of our pupils will be well within our grasp. In other words the emphasis throughout this book is on Physics.

An example of a project successfully carried out in a tropical country is given in Part VI, Appendix C, page 34 1. Some syllabuses are more helpful than others, but any syllabus, however ill-conceived, can be the means of imparting valuable scientific knowledge and, what is more important, of inculcating the scientific spirit.

On the other hand, no syllabus, however helpful, can turn a bad teacher into a good one, or a boring, incomprehensible and inaccurate lesson into a stimulating and exciting experience. What method of presentation should be used? There are two logical ways of arrang- ing scientific observations, laws and theories: 1. Sometimes we can test our deductions by experimental observation. We start with everyday observations and the results of experiments, and hence, arguing from particular cases to a general conclusion, we arrive at laws and theories.

A third alternative comes to mind: perhaps we ought to follow as closely as possible the past history of our subject, presenting the facts, laws and hypotheses to our pupils in an exact historical sequence. This proposal appears attractive at first sight, but the reasons against it are considered later see page The class is then required to discover the common feature that links them together and causes them to be classified as phenomena or problems of a similar kind.

We can then decide, by means of this practical, empirical and inductive procedure, what is, and is not, a good method of teaching science. We can all learn, from our own experience and from each other. This lesson, let us suppose, is being given to junior pupils, aged not more than 14 years. The teacher is late. The class talks loudly and plays with water- and gas- taps. The teacher arrives.

He shouts for silence, and after considerable uproar, he manages to quieten the class. He tells it to get out note-books and pens. Meanwhile the class, having nothing to do, becomes restive, so is told to copy the diagram.

This it cannot do, because the master is standing in front, still drawing. Tt says so, and has to be quietened again. The teacher, now a little distraught, begins to gather a flask and a tripod, and to hunt for some potassium perman- ganate.

At the same time, he attempts to dictate an account of the experi- ment he is going to do. This causes-more trouble-repetition of sentences, snellinp of words. Finally all is readv: the flask of water is in oosition. Heating with a bunsen at once spreads the colour almost uniformly, and the result bears very little relation to the diagram on the board.

But it does not much matter, the pupils being too far away to see anything clearly. The teacher simply asserts that what ought to happen has happened. The class is uninterested, and, under cover of the noise, the teacher looks up the next thing in his text-book-convection currents, the hot-water system the book was written for schools in a cold country.

This is followed by the dictation of a long note. Meanwhile the teacher marches round and round the room, keeping order by visiting all the danger spots in rapid succession. So long as the flow of talk does not waver, and the writing does not stop, all is well. Before the incomprehensible account is finished, the bell goes, and the class, glad of this release, escapes to freedom; the teacher shouting after it, that its home-work is to learn its notes by heart.

Perhaps no one gives quite so bad a lesson as that; it has been deliberately stuffed with as many mistakes as possible. The natural sequel is convection, and he thinks over the experi- ments round which the lesson can be built-what the children can do, what is best demonstrated by himself. He makes sure that the apparatus is ready, and he makes a lesson-plan. If possible, he is in the laboratory before the class arrives. Whether he is there or not, the class knows it must wait outside-along the wall, not blocking the way for others-till it is told to enter.

The teacher opens the door. Under his eye, the class stops talking and files in, each pupil going to his allotted place. Stools and ink-pots are adequate; there is no scramble. The class settles down, not in frightened silence, but with the active buzz of people who have a job to do and are preparing to do it. The teacher, behind his demonstration bench, looks round, and, in a few seconds, there is silence for him, the leader, to speak. One boy is still grovelling on the floor for something; in a conversational tone, he is called to attention by name.

The teacher is prepared to use a loud and commanding tone of voice, if circumstances make it necessary, but not otherwise. His normal voice is clear, and easily followed by those who are attending; but it is not so loud that it forces itself upon those who are idling. In this way the class has to contribute something-its attention-even when it is only listening.

If a pupil is inattentive, the fact is immediately obvious. He heated a test-tube two-thirds full of-mercury, and another one twb- thirds full of water. Members of the class felt the bottom of the tube containing water--cold, and the bottom of the tube containing mercury-hot.

In order to make a different and more interesting beginning to the present lesson, the teacher announces that it is high time everyone learnt how to heat a test-tube without burning his fingers, or getting boiling liquid sprayed over his face. So he calls out one pupil. The class is given test-tubes and has a few happy minutes boiling water. The pupils try it. Water is a bad conductor-how, then, does the heat so quickly travel to the top?

Other examples are mentioned-their own experiences of heating kettles, cans or pots of water on a fire, etc. Why are vessels heated at the bottom? Why is the heating element of an electric kettle at the bottom and not at the top? More than one reason!

Perhaps some more intelligent and knowledgeable child has the idea of convection currents, but in any case the teacher proceeds to an experiment that throws light on the ques- tion-the permanganate convection current experiment, or a much better variation, using aluminium powder, which can be demonstrated not just once, but many times, until the water boils experiment A.

Why does hot water rise? The class, with a little encouragement, ought to be able to find the answer to this, since it knows that liquids expand on heating. Water is a bad conductor of heat. Water, heated at the bottom, soon becomes hot all through. How does this happen? The children must describe the experiment themselves.

The teacher does not write on the board, or dictate, but gives every possible assistance short of this. He describes the experiment again, using exactly the simple short sentences he hopes the children will write-but he does not allow them to write down what he is saying.

He draws the diagram showing convection currents on the blackboard, exactly as he wants it-but he does not allow them to copy it; he rubs it off again. The class writes up the short, simple account, either for home-work, or in this or the next science period, depending on the time available.

The final statement, a definition of the process of convention, is written down in the next lesson, as a conclusion to this piece of work. Can convection occur in solids? If aflame is used, pupils must not be given benzene. Why not? In gases? Children can soon feel the difference when one hand is placed half a metre above a bunsen flame, and the other, half a metre to one side.

Other experiments are mentioned in section A 22 , pages ; suitable topics for discussion are: free and forced convection; applications to the cooling of automobile engines, ventilation, land and sea breezes; why factory chimneys are tall; why the cooling element of a refrigerator is usually at the top, while the heating element of a kettle is at the bottom; etc. Is the second method better than the first?

More is learnt, and in due course more examination marks will be gained. Above all, this method helps to inculcate the scientific spirit, the habit of facing problems, of collecting facts and making experi- ments, before arriving at conclusions and making pronouncements. The second way is the scierkjic method, about which more will be said in the next chapter; the first way merely reduces science to dogma.

We suppose this to be given to pupils aged 16 years, approximately. A wrong method is given first, followed by a right method of presentation. The class, we assume, now has three periods of Physics per week, a double period in the laboratory and a single period in a class-room. The WRONG method - The teacher starts by drawing on the blackboard pictures of the six kinds of lenses, and naming them: biconvex, concavo- convex and all the rest.

He draws some more pictures and states that one kind of lens converges the light and the other diverges it. He defines pole, axis, principal focus and focal length. The class copies the pictures and definitions, which are to be learnt by heart. The teacher goes on to more diagrams his emphasis is on geometrical optics! The class is made to work numerical problems on position, size and nature of the image by drawing.

This fills up the dduble period. Home-work is to learn the definitions and to do more problems. The class learns the proofs for home-work and works out by calculation the examples previously done by drawing. The class, quiet enough during the test, is now restless and feels an urge for some kind of activity.

The teacher gives out apparatus- convex lens, plasticine, pins-and announces that the class is going to find the focal length of a lens. The pudls vick uv the lenses and vins. After a certain amount of chaos, he gets them settled down again, although half the pins are lost by now. He realizes that it is no use telling them to start the experiment, because they have not the least idea how to do it.

So he starts off again upon his one friend-the blackboard. The teacher uses all the coercive force he possesses to quieten the class and make it do his bidding; if he is young and inexperienced he will probably not succeed. The double period draws to a close and the bell goes before he has quite finished: the class rushes out, and he is lucky if he recovers all the lenses, let alone the pins and plasticine.

Next double neriod the class does at last start the exneriment. The teacher spends his time rushing-from one set to another, nutting the vins in the right vositions. The home-work is to calculate the results, and this is done partly by long division and partly by logarithms. The books containing the working are hopelessly untidy, and most of the results are incorrect. What is wrong with this? The accounts were dictated by the teacher, the whole approach was geometrical and out of contact with reality.

The teacher required too little from the pupils. The only demands he made for silence and cessation of fidgeting were two that normal healthy adolescents find extremely hard to satisfy, except under the stimulus of fear. Even when they had interesting things-lenses, pins, plasticine-in front of them, inviting handling, he wanted them to sit perfectly still while he talked and dictated. Also he wanted them to behave as mere receptacles-the jug-and-mug technique-the jug pours its contents into the mug and that is that; or rather, in nine cases out of ten, it is not!

The approach, even if logical in the Euclidean sense, is entirely dogmatic; no kind of training in scientific method has been given. So long as they can satisfy the teacher just sufficiently well to avoid the more serious kinds of trouble, that is all they care about.

Let us consider another method, not the only good method, but certainly a better one. We will suppose, as before, that the initial lesson is a double period in the laboratory. The apparatus is ready on the benches. The pupils want to handle the lenses as soon as they get in. The teacher knows this and makes use of their interest. A good rule is: we must work with the pupils rather than against them; children often know instinctively the best method of education, just as a new-born baby knows where and how to obtain food.

A better method of presentation - The teacher plans a double period to investigate the action of lenses, convex lenses in particular. He decides that two sets of experiments shall be done by the pupils, and one demonstration by himself.

On the demonstration bench he has ready a set of apparatus that shows the tracks of rays, preferably a kind that-can be mounted on a vertical board so that it is visible to the whole class. A certain number of concave lenses and pieces of flat glass are also available.

The light-boxes are switched off at the main switch. As soon as the class enters, the teacher is in front waiting for silence before he starts. He does not worry if the apparatus is picked up: in any case the pupils will be starting the experiments immediately. Experiment A. Previous work on images formed by reflection and refraction at plane surfaces is recalled: images may be like these virtual , or it may be possible to form them on a screen real.

Definitions of real and virtual images are put on the board. However, the ray-box experiments not only help to explain previous observations, but also reveal a new path to be followed, a path that leads to measurements. The need for the definitions of focus and focal length is now obvious, so diagrams of the ray tracks go on the board and into the notes, followed by the definitions.

Drawings not to scale illustrate each case. These drawings may be finished for home-work, and the definitions revised. This completes the first double period. In preparation for the next laboratory period, the class is coached in the use of reciprocal tables.

In the following double period, the pupils have the same lens and light- box apparatus which they now know how to use. A table of five columns is drawn, the first two are headed u and v, and four readings are taken experiment B. A similar table of readings for i, v, 0, Z six columns is made experiment B.

When all, or nearly all, the readings are taken, the apnaratus is cleared away and the class is called to attention. The focal length, f, is calculated. Three weeks nine periods may be devoted to this subject of lenses. So there are still one double and two single periods left in which to familiarize pupils with lens problems to be solved by calculation, to determine a focal length experimentally by the mirror method experiment 8.

The above lesson-sequences illustrate very well the importance of continuity of thought. Having started the class on a new piece of work, the teacher so directs operations that one thing leads to another. Exploring one particular path not only produces the ex- planation required, but opens another avenue of investigation, and leads to new knowledge.

Such is the nature of science; scientific knowledge has a beginning but no end. A theme runs through the work; the pupil is not pre- sented with an array of disconnected items. Similar schemes should usually be adopted in presenting a new topic to pupils, what- ever their age. Some sugges- tions about the possible usefulness of other methods are discussed in part B of this chapter.

Stages 2 a , b and c constitute a simple example of the inductive method. Pupils found pieces of curved glass on their benches : fiddly fingers and active minds did the rest. In this case, however, there are further stages to add. The experiment is simply one more among thousands performed by many people in different places and under differing conditions. It is illustra- tive, its result being in agreement with the findings of many other scientists elsewhere.

We must always be prepared to find other instances that will not be in agreement with the general conclusion. Useful results. The equations that have been established are used to solve problems e. This fourth stage is an example of the deductive method of reason- ing, that is, deriving a particular result from a generalization. This leads to a fifth stage: 5. The conclusions deduced from the laws or equations are tested experimentally. The normal lay-out of a lesson or sequence of lessons The five stages mentioned in the last section may be summarized : 1.

Introduction, arousing interest and directing attention. The conclusions may be used to explain new observations and deduce new consequences. Even at the junior level the work sometimes goes on to exact measurement and the formulation of laws, e.

The use of the laws and equations to deduce new consequences, which, very often, can be checked experimentally. The normal method of approach to a new piece of work should be on the lines suggested above and illustrated in the previous chapter. This is the scientific method of basing conclusions upon evidence, of generalizing after observation and experiment followed by deduc- tions from the generalizations : this scientific method becomes also the method by which science is taught.

Planning a lesson: useful precepts 1. Science should be taught by the scientz3c method of collecting data and making experiments before arriving at conclusions and stating principles. However, starting with what the pupils know does not prevent the teacher from posing a problem, or better, leading the class to pose the problem. For learning to be effective, there must be continuity of thought. Pupils should not be presented with an array of disconnected items having no common theme. The theme must be emphasized and made evident; what is obvious to the teacher may not be nearly so apparent to the pupil.

The teacher should seek to maintain interest and enthusiasm. This certainly does not mean that he has to entertain the class-the occasional joke, the striking experiment, the little bit of play- acting, even the conjuring trick, may all have their place; but being a good and interesting teacher has little to do with being able to perform tricks. Indeed, too much skill in this direction may be distracting!

No, the prime necessity is interest plus effective learn- ing, and this requires plenty of activity: problems for brains to con- sider, experiments for hands to perform. Long descriptive passages should be avoided, and if they cannot be avoided entirely, should be broken up by questions and answers, and by note-taking on salient points.

Too much writing should also be avoided: what is the text-book for? The subject of note-taking is separately con- sidered in another chapter. No doubt there are many more points that a teacher could usefully remember when planning a lesson; but these five are sufficient.

If we can put them into practice, then-granted health and strength, and interest in our pupils and our subject-we cannot go far wrong. To summarize : 1. Scientific method of collecting data before arriving at conclusions. Posing a problem. Continuity of thought. Activity-keep the class busy! One last word on planning: a plan must be made, but we should not be afraid of departing from it. Sometimes the class itself raises an unexpected line of inquiry; the opportunity so offered should not be thrown away in order to impose a rigid scheme designed by the teacher, A class sometimes reveals unexpected ignorance or unex- pected knowledge, and the work must then be slowed or speeded accordingly.

We must make the best of fortune, good or ill. As much as possible is drawn out of the pupils themselves, from the knowledge they possess already, from their experimental observations and their powers of correlation and inference. They may think they do all the work; there is no need for the teacher to disillusion them. Nevertheless, he is present all the time, making suggestions, leading, guiding; he sees to it that the aims of the lesson are achieved.

However, what has been described in part A of the chapter can be criticized on various grounds. Some critics may say that there is far too much guidance and far too little discovery; they would advocate a more thorough-going form of the heuristic method.

Armstrong who, dissatisfied with contemporary science teaching, looked and worked for reform. Essentially, the method requires that the child should approach his scientific studies from the position and in the spirit of a research worker. First the teacher states the object of the lesson, in the form of a problem; or better, the pupils pose the problem.

After that, the methods and apparatus used, the experiments to be done, are decided by the class. The heuristic method, it is claimed, teaches children to find out things for them- selves, and this is much more important than the acquisition of any amount of factual knowledge.

The refutation of heuristic claims is all too easy when it is assumed that the advocate of this theory has taken up an extreme position, and is in fact proposing to put the child in the position of the research worker. Few children can have the intelligence and ability of an original investigator, or, for that matter, the time to spare.

The child is in the position of an investigator, but in- stead of being an original research worker, he is a member of a team engaged upon the same investigations, and we, the teachers, are the leaders of the team. The following extract t puts the case clearly: It is in no sense mere opinion on my part but a conviction gradually forced upon me and established beyond all doubt by actual trial and observation during many years past, that the beginner not only may but must be put absolutely in the position of an original discoverer; and all who properly study the question practically are coming to the same opinion, I find.

Young children are delighted to be so regarded, to be told that they are to act as a band of young detectives. For example, in studying the rusting of iron, they at once fall in with the idea that a crime, as it were, is committed when the valuable, strong iron is changed into useless, brittle rust; with the greatest interest they set about finding out whether it is a case of murder or of suicide, as it were-whether something outside the iron is concerned in the change or whether it changes of its own accord.

This is the very attitude we desire to engender; we wish to create lively interest in the work and to encourage it to come to expression as often, as emphati- cally, as freely as possible. It is not sufficient for the teacher simply to put forward a problem or question, and ask the class to help to solve it.

It is a question for the individual teacher to decide-how far is he bound by a syllabus of work that must be com- pleted? How far can he allow his pupils to investigate not only the practical and experimental problems he sets them, but also problems of their own devising?

Within the framework of a strictly limited number of teaching periods, the teacher must strike a right balance between the acquisition of scientific knowledge, and the attainment of scientific skills. The deductive method To return to the introduction page 32 : criticism of an exactly opposite kind may come from those who think we lay too much emphasis on discovery and individual experiment.

All this, our second critic may say, is a waste of time; we have to plug our pupils with as much reproducible knowledge, in as short a time as pos- sible; and the test is: ability to pass examinations. Therefore, our critic claims, the syllabus should be arranged logically, and by this he means, in such a way that each topic can be inferred by deductive methods from that which precedes it. In teaching magnetism, we start with a theory about molecular magnets; in electricity with electrons; in light and sound, with waves; and so on.

Some text-books have been written upon these lines. This approach makes science a dull and dogmatic subject. It teaches the receptive pupil to be more receptive, but it does not encourage him to think, or to discover and correlate new facts. Even its examination value is doubtful, because the more interested the pupils the more they will learn. Nevertheless, theories, and deductions from theories, do have a large place in scientific work.

In the earlier stages junior and middle school descriptive theories provide the pegs on which memory can hang otherwise isolated facts. For example, the kinetic theory of heat links together, and provides a simple explanation of, a large number of phenomena such as gas pressure, saturated and unsaturated vapours, boiling, surface tension and the absolute zero of temperature.

Similarly, many of the discon- nected facts about the electrolysis of solutions are easily linked and remembered by the aid of the ionic theory. But theories are more than mere aids to memory. We are constantly using both inductive and deductive methods, but the inductive approach almost always provides the best initial treatment of a new topic.

Science teaching and the history of science: the historical method At the beginning of Chapter III, and again in this chapter, emphasis is laid upon the importance of a logical development, and of con- tinuity of thought. Naturally we wish to make the subject as simple and straight-forward as we can, so that it presents the least difficul- ties to our pupils.

Science has followed devious routes, as may be illustrated by Figure 2. The syllabus allows, perhaps, two months to go from A to B. We try to follow the logical path represented by the dotted line. Ought we not to make our pupils follow the same tortuous paths, and explore some at least of the blind-alleys?

What is the advantage of this roundabout method? To finish the quotation :. The latter. But, in general, it seems first, that the historical method takes too much time, and second, that the approach by the scientific method of personal observation, experiment and correla- tion of results with laws and theories is, in most cases, the best approach for the pupil at school; the pupil wants to be doing, rather than hearing about what other people have done. The historical method is not a suitable substitute for experimental work, but it is often suitable for teaching theory, either directly or for purposes of recapitulation.

The teaching sequence presented in the syllabuses Part V is only occasionally the historical sequence. It is the sequence that might have been followed, a simpler sequence made by those who are wise after the event. Physics is difficult enough as it is, and anything that simplifies the work for our pupils is more than welcome.

Holmyard, School Science Review, June These dangers may be avoided, perhaps, by an intensive study of the history of a few restricted topics, a suggestion which will be elaborated in Chapter V In general, the historical method of presentation is too cumbersome and time-wasting to receive serious consideration as a main teach- ing method. Moreover, sufficiently detailed information about the history of every branch of Physics, even at the school level, is not available. The historical approach, however, is sometimes the best way of introducing important physical theories: for example, the wave theory of light, and the ionic theory of electrolytes.

The danger of dogmatic statement is avoided. For older pupils, a course of lectures and discussions on scientific method and the nature of science may well include an intensive historical study of one or two quite limited physical topics see Chapter VIII. There is one other point about the usefulness to the teacher of a knowledge of history.

If he is in doubt about the best method of presenting and developing a new topic, a study of the history of the subject may lead him to discover a natural continuity of thought and a method most easily grasped by the pupil.

For example, chemists, before the time of Priestley and Lavoisier, regarded air and water as simple substances, while nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen were considered complex. So does the child of today, entering the laboratory for the first time. Therefore our first lessons in science should start with air and water, as advocated in Chapter IL of this book.

This led to an argument; many refused to believe that anything so insubstantial as air could support so great a weight of mercury; some even said that they could feel the invisible threads from the top of the tube, supporting the mercury!

Let a pupil make a barometer with a tube open at both ends, keeping a finger over one end all the time for this purpose the tube need not be of full barometric length, nor need all the air be removed from it. The mercury column stays in position so long as his finger is in place. What does he feel? Naturally he was immediately led to observe that, at the doubled pressure, the column of the air was halved. Robert Boyle had no bicycle! A fourth point about the place, in science teaching, of the history of science is therefore: 4.

Lastly, the history of science is a part, and a very important part, of the history of the human race. During the last three hundred years, scientific discoveries and applications have played a much greater part in the development of the modern world than has any other single factor. The history of science is therefore a matter of great importance to the teacher of history as well as to the teacher of science -greater, perhaps, because it is possible to teach science without history, but it is certainly not possible to teach history while ignoring science.

The biographical method The historical method need not be concerned with persons at all; its essential requirement is the retracing of the historical route. Pupils should appreciate this expression, and should feel this romance. Sanderson, the famous Head Master of Oundle School, wrote :. Rather, read -Archimedes. Read the researches of the Heroes of Science. Take his papers on Electrolysis, and mark the long procession-of experiments, the number and wonder of the stuffs, the diversity of method, the trials and failures, uncertainties, doubts and suggestiveness, the atmosphere of dis- covery.

Read his electro-magnetic researches, and watch the belief, the patience, openness of mind, inventive-ness. I think I have got hold of a good thing. Many will believe the story of these researches is the invention of a literary artist. One account of the ascent of Everest may be a factual account of the places the expedition visited, the routes taken, the decisions made and the reasons for making them, the final success.

Another account- the biographical-may record the feelings of the men, their hopes and disappointments, the fears and frustrations, the slow monotonous weariness of the ascent, the exhilaration of victory-and perhaps, the flatness that comes with the realization that the dream of the first ascent, the ambition cherished for so many months, has been realized and, therefore, can never be realized again.

But in science, even more than in geographical exploration, there are always new hopes to be realized and new victories to be won. Our proper aim, then, is to make our pupils feel, so far as they may. We have a job to do, our pupils may have to pass examina- tions, and the human spirit finds little place in an examination answer.

Time will not allow us to pursue the biographical method very far -but let the idea remain at the backs of our minds, there to bring forth fruit when the occasion is ripe, the opportunity offers, the time is available. What opportunity? The opportunity for pupils to read about, and concentrate upon, and saturate themselves with, the per- sonality and thoughts of one great scientist during one part of his life.

Cawthorne, Oxford University Press. Our object here is not to learn facts but to trace the workings of the human mind and spirit. Thomson, Rutherford and many others. How to choose? Whoever we can find out most about. Some sources are mentioned on page The rule, proceed from the simple to the complex, is a teaching maxim that is often useful, but not invariably true. The scientist, faced with a difficult problem, breaks it down into simpler parts, each to be dealt with separately-he analyses.

Then he synthesizes-puts together the details and obtains an explanation and an understanding of the complicated situation that first confronted him. We have reached the end of this survey of teaching methods. Brief thought it is, it contains many ideas, many ideals, much that is con- fusing.

So here is a last word of advice: the young teacher should understand and put into practice the jive precepts stated on page Teaching method During the last two or three years of their school life, pupils taking Physics normally specialize in the subject, and in one or two other science subjects, or mathematics.

More time is available and more ground can be covered in each teaching period. Pupils are better able to work on their own, both inside and outside the laboratory. How- ever, the general method of teaching should be the same as that used in the middle school, summed up in the precepts: 1.

In presenting a new piece of work we follow the scientific method of collecting data and making experiments before arriving at con- clusions and stating principles. We proceed from the known to the unknown. If possible, a problem is posed. Continuity of thought should be maintained.

Activity-we keep the class busy, and therefore interested. The last requirement should not now present very much difficulty; presumably all the pupils are fundamentally interested, otherwise they would not be in the class. Most of them will have a definite aim in view and have, therefore, a greater sense of urgency in their search for knowledge : the drive comes more from the class and less from the teacher.

Students may now be given more reading and encouraged to make more use of library books as well as their own text-books. In a number of countries,. Both written and reading work may well be set for a whole week, the teacher not worry- ing about when the pupil does it, so long as it is done.

The teacher to whom this happens is succeeding in his primary aim of encouraging his pupils to think; he should strive to make full use of the interplay of minds which the discussion-group technique makes possible. We expect, then, that the pre-university pupil will take greater responsibility for his own reading and written work, and that he will join more freely in discussions: these are two facets of the greater emphasis on the individual pupil at this stage.

Classes should be smaller than in the middle school, fifteen students perhaps-though, admittedly, sometimes there are twenty or thirty. Even so, the pupil divides his time between hard individual study and work shared with fellow-pupils. Individual study requires practice, and it may be that the young student has not the ability to work on his own; in that case he may seem to relax and to remain stationary instead of pushing on into the realms of specialist physics that lie before him.

It is hardly surprising that the first year in the sixth-form is a period in which many pupils seem to be marking time instead of pushing on into exciting developments of work for which they are ready. Too many pupils at this time lose ground which they never recover. They may indeed be unable to work by themselves at all.

If, however, pupils have been taught along the lines, and by the methods, suggested in previous chapters, this difficulty should not be experienced. Some slackening, some relaxation of tension, may well be expected, if they have been working intensively in order to pass an external examination; but this phase should be brief and by no means a complete loss.

Pupils should be assimilating a new and more individually responsible method of working. It is always more difficult to train people to be self-reliant and to be capable of working on their own, than it is to do the actual work. Details, please? What results? Absolute zero--how did we arrive at this idea? What is meant by the absolute scale of temperature? How did we measure temperature? This statement is explained. Pupils should then perform experiment B. If ice is available, the apparatus of experi- ment B.

Gas volume has now been assumed to vary linearly with temperature, but the rate of variation must be found by experiment. If ice is obtainable. A more accurate form of apparatus, namely, the constant volume hydrogen thermometer, is adopted as the standard for temperature measurement. Items a and b above, without the experiments, may take two minute periods of question and answer, discussion, and brief exposition. Proofs e. Note-taking should be kept to a minimum, and the pupils encouraged to use text-books.

Experiments are, of course, done in separate practical periods see Chapter IX. Is R a constant? There are two commonly used values of R, for 1 gram and for 1 gram-molecule. R for a gm. The teacher gives a ten-minute talk on the nature and assump- tion of the simple qualitative kinetic theory, and on how it explains certain phenomena. The class spends fifteen minutes, say, in reading the account of this in the text-book. There follows fifteen minutes of question and answer. But the teacher must be brief, avoiding the danger of too much talking on this diffuse subject.

Pupils must read and think for themselves. Teachers taking classes at this level are always in something of a quandary. How much may we assume pupils to know already? What is our starting point? A few leading questions usually bring us to the discouraging conclusion that they know nothing-we must start from the beginning! But that is not so: the previous learning may have been somewhat superficial, but the ground has already been prepared for the new seed, and to go on ploughing the old work over and over again is a mistake.

We have to strike the correct balance between revision and new work, and therefore the lesson plan must be something like that suggested above. The speed and emphasis of the lesson must be easily adaptable to the needs of the class, needs that may become apparent only during the actual giving of the lesson. The teacher may feel more at ease when he reaches work that he knows to be completely new to the class.

The next stages of the work on kinetic theory may be beyond some pre-university syllabuses: e In the fifth and sixth periods, the mathematical expression for the pressure of an ideal gas is deduced from kinetic theory considerations. Our usual method of drawing conclusions from experiments breaks down; we can get no further in our investigations of the nature of gases.

So we adopt another method: we assume that we have a gas made up of the simplest possible kinds of molecules, round hard balls. We then deduce how such a gas would behave, and compare our deductions with what we observe about real gases see vi below. We may compare the position of a detective trying to solve a murder mystery. He has clues, but he has not succeeded in making those clues lead him to the criminal.

So he adopts another method, he tries the assumption that this, that, or the other person is the criminal and thinks what they would have done, and then compares his deductions with the actual facts. Hence we conclude that our assumptions in ii were, for these purposes, very near the truth. At a later date we should discuss deviations from the gas laws and the extent to which the assumptions in ii must be modified. Some problems of the pre-university level a Two stages or one? If a free choice is possible, then the second alternative, of completing the work in two stages, is fairly obviously the better.

But other considerations may influence the decision; for example: 6 Pre-university classes are small, and jirst- and second-year pupils must be taught at the same tiune? A better way is for the teacher to divide the syllabus vertically, so to speak, instead of horizontally. This is not an entirely satisfactory solution, but perhaps the best in the circumstances. The decision here is very much a matter of personal preference.

Some experienced teachers follow the first alternative, others the second. The parallel arrangement certainly has advantages for the inexperi; enced teacher; it tends to prevent him from spending too much time on one subject to the detriment of the other.

However, the more concentrated treatment of one subject at a time has much to recommend it. Pupils really believe that they are getting some- where; they can plan their work more easily, and the arrangement has less resemblance to the fragmentary curriculum of the junior and middle schools, where four different subjects may be studied in a morning, followed perhaps by three others in the afternoon.

If the work is shared between two teachers, it is much better for one to be responsible for some branches of the subject e. Others may intend to leave after a year or so, and are only filling in time. What should the teacher do about these? Should he divide them from the rest of the class and attempt to deal with them separately?

On leaving school they will be more likely to continue their studies if they feel that their education has been incomplete but good, than if they feel they have had a complete but inferior course. But the main stream of pupils should not be inflicted with external examinations at the half-way stage; they should be allowed to proceed without hindrance to their final examination.

She appears to be very young. She has beautifully smoke-outlined long-lashed jade green eyes, glossy red full lips, and fair skin. She has very long, thick chestnut hair loosely styled with a sprinkling of gold-tinged sunstones scattered throughout. She has a gilt-edged ebon mask partially covering her face and slightly pointed ears. She is wearing a sculptural matte black silk gown with pale gold chains spanning the deep neckline, a rune-etched gold bracelet, a rose-shaped velvet hip-purse, and a pair of golden silk shoes with pearl beading down the vamp.

Alisaire Frey the Hunter. She has scintillating scarlet despanals for eyes and sable skin. She has jaw-length, fine snowy white hair that falls loosely around her long, pointed ears and is closely cropped in the back. She has a sculpted avian mask framed by shadowed pinions over her face. A cascading mantle of diaphanous folds of night sky clasped with a slim silver disk floats gently about her shoulders.

She has a barely discernible labyrinthine webwork of shadowy sigils encircling her forearms in black ink. She is wearing a silver-bound shadowy crystal talisman, a fitted ashen wool frock coat corset-laced up the back with alizarin cording, a long vest of layered alabaster damask silk accented in alizarin over a high-collared raw silk shirt with loosely fitted sleeves, a brushed suede belt, a trim pair of dark sepia sueded linen pants, and a pair of dark oiled leather shoes. Lord Angellos the Nobleman.

He is tall. He appears to be very young. He has deep blue eyes and sun-caressed skin. He has short, spiky gold-tinted brown hair swept back with a stray lock resting near the eyes. He has a small nose and a series of metal armbands on his muscular arm that reflect the ambient light. A jagged scar encircles his eye from above the brow to just below the cheekbone.

Perched precariously on the tip of his nose, he wears a pair of mirror-finish glasses that look as though they may fall off at any moment. He has a small floating heart ring in the upper ridge of his right ear. Aserak the Sacrificer. He is average height. He has gold-flecked stormy grey eyes and pale skin. He has shoulder length, white hair.

He has high cheekbones. He is wearing a worn faenor talisman, a traveler's cloak, a withered lich mask, a mithril Twilight Hall pin, a side-buckled ebon leather aketon, an azure leather gauntlet with a tiny quartz orb attached to each knuckle, a mottled blue-grey krolvin hide sack, a black velvet drawstring gem pouch, a smoke grey runestone case, and a pair of black velvet boots.

She is of average height and has a curvaceous figure. She appears to be in the flower of life. She has sultry kohl lashed, silver-limned venom green eyes and flawless ivory skin. She has very long, luminous hellebore red hair pinned back on one side with a slender deep crimson fluted datura. She has a high-cheekboned oval face and delicate upswept pointed ears.

She has full, sensuous lips tinted a pale rose hue. She has a micaceous abyss black patina brushed onto her perfectly manicured fingernails. She has a sinuous tendril of mournblooms inked in dark hues on her ankle, a pair of lustrous vaalin rings adorned with fiery emerald bijous in the upper ridge of her left ear, a thorned black wild rose inking on her wrist, a colorful inking of solanaceae on her thigh, a stylized flames tattoo on her shoulder, and an intricately inked cilice of curved argent talons on her thigh.

Embers of red-orange flame spark across her body, crackling as they race upwards into the air. She is wearing a sleek black jaguar half-mask with dark crimson diamond-beaded eyeholes, a long shadow black leather jacket with a carved obsidian wild rose clasp, a black garnet flame sigil fraught with fiery crimson motes, a side-slit abyss black lace gown with a sharply plummeting neckline, a thin black leather thighband, and a pair of sheer black silk stockings whorled with crimson flames, and a pair of twilight raw silk shoes fastened with tiny dark crimson diamond buttons.

Through a sinister black haze, Cruxophim 's features appear transformed into those of a vesperti. Willowy thin and tall, his lithe form is covered in coarse black fur. Intense crimson-veined luminous yellow eyes stare out from beneath a mane of tousled tenebrous hair, while the fine features of his face resemble an elven ancestry. A veined membrane of skin extends from his ankles up to his wrists, their edges scalloped like those of a bat's wings.

Tapered digits bearing glossy black claws cap the wings at taloned feet and hands. Eiliriel Leilatha Faendryl. She is tall and has a lean, rangy build. She appears to be young. She has large dark eyes and pale skin. She has shoulder length, glossy black hair in loose, elegant curls pinned on one side with a polished silver lor haircomb. She has an oval face, an upturned nose and sharply-curved pointed ears.

The lines and curves of her face are long and delicate, their aesthetic reflecting grace and refinement. She is wearing a porcelain mask embellished with a large jet-on-silver crystal design, a long lavaliere dripping shards of despanal, an opal-dusted black linen purse, a jasmine white matte silk bliaut with silver-tinged accents, a series of vivid bloodjewel bracelets, a sinuously curving silver bracelet set with dark moonstones, and some silvery moire silk high-heeled shoes.

Faerinn Greatsinger the Muse. He is of a towering height and has glossy claret full lips,, lightly tanned skin. He has long, curly honey blonde hair falling to his shoulders in gentle sienna-tipped waves. His face is completely obscured by a scarlet-lensed leather wolf mask with a toothy grin down its snout. He has an inked snarling opossum hunched over a bloody scrap of meat on his wrist.

He is wearing an immaculate bourde cravat adorned with an ostentatious jet-flecked ivory starburst pin, a front-ruffled alabaster silk jacket with a pressed ashen linen pocket square, a bathing maiden brooch pinned in place by a pair of mithril chains, a fitted plum silk gown trailing a length of jet tulle roses, some pleated black velvet gloves, and some pale silk stockings wrapped in black velvet vines under a pair of blush ribbon-laced slippers stacked on lasimor heels.

Heavy sparks dance around Felarion as wisps of electricity travel up and down his body. Felarion the Wizard. He is taller than average. He appears to be young and robust. He has almond-shaped silvery blue eyes and fair skin.

He has shoulder length, wavy burnt umber-hued hair worn in a ponytail. He has an angular face, a classical nose and tall upswept pointed ears. Perched precariously on the tip of his nose, he wears a pair of oval copper wire framed eyeglasses that look as though they may fall off at any moment. He is wearing a silver mask, a nacre-inset brushed silver locket, a gold-trimmed blue spidersilk greatcloak, a pale blue chalcedony moonflower swept with silver patterns, a cinder grey haversack, some soft grey casting leathers, a high-collared black velvet shirt with silver-framed onyx cufflinks, a silvery braided band, a leather swordbelt, some grey linen trousers held at the waist with a knot of black leather, and a pair of dark suede boots.

High Lord Gutstorm Groggslammer. He appears to be young. He has dark eyes and tanned skin. He has long, unkempt deep red hair. He has a dark-inked old dwarven woman with a wide toothless smile on his arm, a dwarf toddler covered only with a loincloth and hoisting an oversized mug of ale on his arm, and a boldly inked loincloth-clad dwarven toddler proudly hoisting an oversized mug of ale on his arm. He is holding a glass of effervescent dark rum punch in his right hand.

He is wearing a braided gold ring, an asymmetrically winged campaign button that reads, "Team Leafi: Embrace the Chaos! Juspera Spintari the Nuisance. She is shorter than average. She has a shimmer of mithril grey on her eyelids, mud-brown eyes and ashen skin.

She has shoulder length, red hair. She has a slightly round-featured but otherwise unremarkable face. She has a wiry, boyish frame outlined in lean muscle. She has a coiled argent dragon tattoo on her arm, and a poison ivy tattoo on her thigh. She is wearing a scaled mithril half-mask, a lustrous grey pearl suspended on a fine vaalin chain, a garnet-sheened stygian velvet column gown, some dark ankle-strapped sandals, and a cloak.

Mistress Khobra Ta'Maelshyve. It is difficult to properly see her features as the hood of her cloak is pulled down over her face. She has a trio of scarlet despanal hoops dangling fiery feathers in the upper ridge of her left ear, an intricately inked obsidian-scaled cobra encircling her left eye, an enormous diamond scaled albino anaconda inked upon along her back, an entangled black mamba and saw-scaled viper tattoo on her chest, and an inked midnight ebon scorpion with red claws on her waist.

Scintillating emerald-colored ivy vines pour down from her shoulders. She is wearing a black ora medallion, a floor-length midnight black cloak, a coiled black diamond cobra relic, a half-laced vathorskin half-bodice, a silver-etched black ora armband, a sigil-inscribed vathor-etched armlet dangling a pentacle, a form-fitted vathorskin loincloth, and some ecru lace stockings caught with matching bands kept by ebon bows under some calf-laced cobra skin boots lofted on thin black diamond heels.

A thin layer of stone covers Lohim's form and undulates with his motions. Lohim the Conjurer. He is very tall. He has piercing crystal blue eyes and tanned skin. He has shoulder length, wavy golden brown hair worn in a single braid.

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She has a sleek bronze verlok mask with a crest of brilliant eahnor red feathers partially covering her face. The strikingly smooth transitions between her otherwise angular features lend a distinctly patrician quality to her aspect. She has bold vermilion polish brushed onto her sharp fingernails.

She is wearing a tasseled silk wrap embroidered in autumnal reds and golds, a black vruul skin button with a three-lobed burning eye reading, "Obey Xorus", some articulated metal wings fashioned from hollow bronze rods and bright eahnor-hued feathers, an ombre gown of rich vermilion ruby spangles darkening into fluted jet beads, a ruby and silver wedding band, an intricate despanal ring, and a pair of sparkling ruby slippers.

She is average height and has a lithesome, nimble build. She has gold-ringed sapphire blue eyes and rosy skin. She has mid back-length, wavy raven black hair parted to the side and pinned back with a black leather fascinator pinned with a crimson firestone brooch. She has a well-defined, heart-shaped face and a birthmark in the shape of a heart.

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She has a sun-shaped gold stud in her right nostril, and a black-inked polar bear paw print on her wrist. She is wearing a visored helm, and a chocolate brown weasel fur loincloth. Meit Whip Faendryl. She has sunken, basalt-veined smoky stone grey eyes and ebon skin. She has long, shaggy silver hair pulled back from the face by a thin, sallowed vertebrae headband adorned with decorative greasy black vulture pennae.

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Melikor Thangorodrim Faendryl the Necromancer. He is tall in stature and has a thin, wiry frame. He appears to be an adult. He has piercing storm grey eyes and pale tan sand-hued skin. He has mid back-length, fine silver hair topped with a tall black felt hat. He has a narrow face, a pair of smoky grey spectacles perched upon his sharp nose and tall upswept pointed ears.

A thin nacreous grey quill is tucked behind his ear. Mystical energies wash over him, surrounding him in an elemental shroud of swirling ethereal lights. He is wearing a scarlet feather-clad great horned owl brocade half-mask with a silvery hooked beak, an ivory silk cravat pinned with an ebon-tinged soulstone, an ebon and scarlet bourde longcoat lined with glistening adder scales, a grey wool waistcoat paneled in pewter-threaded herringbone stripes, an alabaster cambric shirt buttoned with lustrous despanal cufflinks, an ancient silver signet ring, a polished silver pocket watch with a fine silver chain, some pressed grey wool trousers, some charcoal grey socks, and some semi-gloss black leather shoes with hidden laces.

He is average height and has a broad-shouldered slender frame. He appears to be as old as the hills. He has narrow, white-pupiled ebon eyes and silver-sheened skin.

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